University of Oulu

Ramasetti, E. K., Visuri, V.-V., Sulasalmi, P., Fabritius, T., Saatio, T., Li, M., & Shao, L. (2019). Numerical Modeling of Open-Eye Formation and Mixing Time in Argon Stirred Industrial Ladle. Metals, 9(8), 829.

Numerical modeling of open-eye formation and mixing time in argon stirred industrial ladle

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Author: Ramasetti, Eshwar Kumar1; Visuri, Ville-Valtteri1; Sulasalmi, Petri1;
Organizations: 1Process Metallurgy Research Unit, University of Oulu, PO Box 4300, 90014 Oulu, Finland
2Outokumpu Stainless Oy, Terästie, 95490 Tornio, Finland
3School of Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Heping District, Shenyang 11004, China
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 5.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2019
Publish Date: 2019-08-02


In secondary metallurgy, argon gas stirring and alloying of elements are very important in determining the quality of steel. Argon gas is injected through the nozzle located at the bottom of the ladle into the molten steel bath; this gas breaks up into gas bubbles, rising upwards and breaking the slag layer at high gas flow rates, creating an open-eye. Alloy elements are added to the molten steel through the open-eye to attain the desired steel composition. In this work, experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of argon gas flow rate on the open-eye size and mixing time. An Eulerian volume of fluid (VOF) approach was employed to simulate the argon/steel/slag interface in the ladle, while a species transport model was used to calculate the mixing time of the nickel alloy. The simulation results showed that the time-averaged value of the open-eye area changed from 0.66 to 2.36 m2 when the flow rate of argon was varied from 100 to 500 NL/min. The mixing time (95% criterion) of tracer addition into the metal bath decreased from 139 s to 96 s, when the argon flow rate was increased from 100 to 500 NL/min. The model validation was verified by comparing with measured experimental results

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Series: Metals
ISSN: 2075-4701
ISSN-E: 2075-4701
ISSN-L: 2075-4701
Volume: 9
Issue: 8
Article number: 829
DOI: 10.3390/met9080829
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 215 Chemical engineering
216 Materials engineering
Funding: The authors are grateful for the financial support of the European Commission under grant number 675715-MIMESIS–H2020-MSCA-ITN-2015, which is part of the Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions Innovative Training Networks European Industrial Doctorate Program.
EU Grant Number: (675715) MIMESIS - Mathematics and Materials Science for Steel Production and Manufacturing
Copyright information: © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (