University of Oulu

Lappalainen, K., Kuorikoski, E., Vanvyve, E., Dong, Y., Kärkkäinen, J., Niemelä, M., & Lassi, U. (2019). Brønsted and Lewis Acid Catalyzed Conversion of Pulp Industry Waste Biomass to Levulinic Acid. BioResources, 14(3), 7025-7040. Retrieved from

Brønsted and Lewis acid catalyzed conversion of pulp industry waste biomass to levulinic acid

Saved in:
Author: Lappalainen, Katja1,2; Kuorikoski, Eveliina2; Vanvyve, Elise2;
Organizations: 1Kokkola University Consortium Chydenius, University of Jyväskylä, Talonpojankatu 2B, Kokkola, FIN-67100 Finland
2Research Unit of Sustainable Chemistry, University of Oulu, P.O.Box 4300, University of Oulu, FIN-90014, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.9 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: North Carolina State University, 2019
Publish Date: 2019-08-08


Enormous amounts of fiber sludge are generated annually by the pulp industry as a by-product. As a cellulose-rich material, its current usage, mainly as fuel, is inefficient from a material efficiency point of view. This work studied the utilization of fiber sludge from a Finnish and a Swedish pulp mill as a potential feedstock to produce levulinic acid, a valuable platform chemical. The conversion experiments of fiber sludge to levulinic acid were performed in a microwave reactor with a mixture of H2SO4 and Lewis acid as the catalyst. The reaction conditions, which included reaction time and temperature as well as the H2SO4 and Lewis acid concentrations, were studied in detail. The highest levulinic acid yield, 56%, was obtained with Swedish fiber sludge after 60 min at 180 °C with the H2SO4 concentration of 0.3 mol/L and a CrCl3 concentration of 7.5 mmol/L which indicated that the fiber sludge had the potential to be used as feedstock for levulinic acid production.

see all

Series: Bioresources
ISSN: 1930-2126
ISSN-E: 1930-2126
ISSN-L: 1930-2126
Volume: 14
Issue: 3
Pages: 7025 - 7040
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 116 Chemical sciences
Copyright information: © 2019 The Authors.