University of Oulu

Laura Krooks, Pertti Pirttiniemi, Mimmi Tolvanen, Georgios Kanavakis, Raija Lähdesmäki, Anna-Sofia Silvola, Association of facial sagittal and vertical characteristics with facial aesthetics in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966, European Journal of Orthodontics, Volume 41, Issue 3, June 2019, Pages 279–285,

Association of facial sagittal and vertical characteristics with facial aesthetics in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966

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Author: Krooks, Laura1; Pirttiniemi, Pertti1,2; Tolvanen, Mimmi3;
Organizations: 1Department of Oral Development and Orthodontics, Research Unit of Oral Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu
2Oral and Maxillofacial Department, Oulu University Hospital, Medical Research Center Oulu
3Department of Community Dentistry, Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku, Finland
4Department of Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry, UZB-University School of Dental Medicine, University of Basel, Switzerland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.2 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Oxford University Press, 2019
Publish Date: 2019-09-11


Objective: To explore the association of facial sagittal and vertical dimensions with aesthetic assessment by three panel groups.

Materials and methods: The study population comprised adult individuals from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC1966). A clinical oral examination including digital facial photographs was performed. The study population was divided into subjects with the lowest and highest values in soft tissue measurements in lower anterior facial height percentage (LAFH%) (60 subjects) and antero-posterior jaw relationship [soft tissue A-point, nasion, and B-point (ANB) angle; 60 subjects] and a control group (30 subjects). Frontal and profile facial photographs were presented to three panel groups: five orthodontists, five dentists, and five laypersons, who evaluated the photographs using the visual analogue scale (VAS).

Results: This study showed significant differences in VAS mean scores between the panel groups. Curve estimation revealed a significant quadratic association between aesthetic VAS evaluation and ANB angle for all panel groups. The association between ANB angle and perceived facial attractiveness was highest among orthodontists (R² = 0.276, P = 0.001 for males; R² = 0.285, P = 0.001 for females). However, no statistically significant association was found between facial attractiveness and LAFH%.

Conclusion: Facial sagittal dimensions appeared to influence facial aesthetics more than vertical dimensions in middle-aged adults. In their perception of facial aesthetics, orthodontists were more influenced by antero-posterior jaw relationships than dentists and laypersons. The overall perception of facial attractiveness related to facial dimensions appeared to differ between the panel groups in female and male faces.

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Series: European journal of orthodontics
ISSN: 0141-5387
ISSN-E: 1460-2210
ISSN-L: 0141-5387
Volume: 41
Issue: 3
Pages: 279 - 285
DOI: 10.1093/ejo/cjy062
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 313 Dentistry
Funding: This work was supported by grants from the Finnish Dental Society Apollonia and the Finnish Women Dentists’ Association. The NFBC1966 received financial support from the University of Oulu [Grant No 24000692], the Oulu University Hospital [Grant No 24301140] and the ERDF European Regional Development Fund [Grant No 539/2010 A31592].
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. This is a pre-copyedited, author-produced version of an article accepted for publication in European Journal of Orthodontics following peer review. The version of record Krooks, L., Pirttiniemi, P., Tolvanen, M., Kanavakis, G., Lähdesmäki, R., & Silvola, A.-S. (2018). Association of facial sagittal and vertical characteristics with facial aesthetics in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. European Journal of Orthodontics, 41(3), 279–285. is available online at: