University of Oulu

Noori R, Tian F, Berndtsson R, Abbasi MR, Naseh MV, Modabberi A, et al. (2019) Recent and future trends in sea surface temperature across the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman. PLoS ONE 14(2): e0212790.

Recent and future trends in sea surface temperature across the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman

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Author: Noori, Roohollah1,2; Tian, Fuqiang2; Berndtsson, Ronny3;
Organizations: 1School of Environmental, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2Department of Hydraulic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
3Department of Water Resources Engineering & Center for Middle Eastern Studies, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
4National Institute of Oceanography and Atmospheric Science, Tehran, Iran
5Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Arak University, Arak, Iran
6Water Resources and Environmental Engineering Research Unit, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 4 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Public Library of Science, 2019
Publish Date: 2019-09-12


Climate change’s effect on sea surface temperature (SST) at the regional scale vary due to driving forces that include potential changes in ocean circulation and internal climate variability, ice cover, thermal stability, and ocean mixing layer depth. For a better understanding of future effects, it is important to analyze historical changes in SST at regional scales and test prediction techniques. In this study, the variation in SST across the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman (PG&GO) during the past four decades was analyzed and predicted to the end of 21st century using a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) model. As input, daily optimum interpolation SST anomaly (DOISSTA) data, available from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of the United States, were used. Descriptive analyses and POD results demonstrated a gradually increasing trend in DOISSTA in the PG&GO over the past four decades. The spatial distribution of DOISSTA indicated: (1) that shallow parts of the Persian Gulf have experienced minimum and maximum values of DOISSTA and (2) high variability in DOISSTA in shallow parts of the Persian Gulf, including some parts of southern and northwestern coasts. Prediction of future SST using the POD model revealed the highest warming during summer in the entire PG&GO by 2100 and the lowest warming during fall and winter in the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman, respectively. The model indicated that monthly SST in the Persian Gulf may increase by up to 4.3 °C in August by the turn of the century. Similarly, mean annual changes in SST across the PG&GO may increase by about 2.2 °C by 2100.

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Series: PLoS one
ISSN: 1932-6203
ISSN-E: 1932-6203
ISSN-L: 1932-6203
Volume: 14
Issue: 2
Article number: e0212790
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0212790
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 218 Environmental engineering
1172 Environmental sciences
Copyright information: © 2019 Noori et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.