University of Oulu

Toivanen, M, Hjort, J, Heino, J, Tukiainen, H, Aroviita, J, Alahuhta, J. Is catchment geodiversity a useful surrogate of aquatic plant species richness? J Biogeogr. 2019; 46: 1711– 1722. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.13648

Is catchment geodiversity a useful surrogate of aquatic plant species richness?

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Author: Toivanen, Maija1; Hjort, Jan1; Heino, Jani2;
Organizations: 1Geography Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Finnish Environment Institute, Freshwater Centre, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: embargoed
Persistent link: http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi-fe2019091227989
Language: English
Published: John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Publish Date: 2020-07-02
Description:

Abstract

Aim: Conserving freshwater biodiversity in a rapidly changing world requires updated planning schemes and research efforts. Geodiversity — the diversity of Earth surface forms, materials and processes — and biodiversity are interlinked at a fundamental level. This relationship is being considered in a growing number of studies, yet research from freshwater environments is scarce. We used geodiversity (rock‐type, soil‐type and geomorphological richness), local and climatic variables to explore whether geodiversity can be used as a surrogate for aquatic plant species richness in lakes and rivers.

Location: Finland.

Taxon: Aquatic plants.

Methods: We compared geodiversity variables (measured within 1‐km² grid cells) to well‐studied local (e.g. area, alkalinity) and climate (e.g. growing degree‐days) variables, and examined the patterns between habitat types (lakes and rivers) and among all taxa and major functional groups (helophytes and hydrophytes). We modelled lake (n = 145) and river (n = 146) plant species richness with generalized linear models, and further partitioned variation to measure the independent and shared contributions of the geodiversity, climate and local environmental variable groups. As a complementary analysis, and to identify single important variables explaining variation in aquatic plant species richness, we utilized boosted regression trees.

Results: We found a positive relationship between aquatic plant species richness and catchment geodiversity variation with recurring patterns across two different freshwater habitat types and two aquatic plant functional groups. Higher variation in geodiversity (measured at landscape scale) supported higher freshwater biodiversity (measured at the local scale) of lakes and rivers.

Main conclusions: Geodiversity can be a useful addition to biodiversity modelling, and it should be considered in conservation schemes and monitoring efforts, further supporting the principle of conserving nature’s stage. Yet, differences between habitats and functional groups suggest that more habitat‐specific approaches and multiple biodiversity measures should be considered. Our study is an important signpost guiding further studies on the biodiversity–geodiversity relationship in freshwater ecosystems.

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Series: Journal of biogeography
ISSN: 0305-0270
ISSN-E: 1365-2699
ISSN-L: 0305-0270
Volume: 46
Issue: 8
Pages: 1711 - 1722
DOI: 10.1111/jbi.13648
OADOI: https://oadoi.org/10.1111/jbi.13648
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 1171 Geosciences
1181 Ecology, evolutionary biology
1172 Environmental sciences
Subjects:
Funding: Toivanen was supported by Maj & Tor Nessling Foundation and Societas pro Fauna et Flora Fennica. Tukiainen was supported by Kone Foundation. Hjort acknowledges the Academy of Finland (project number 315519).
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 315519
Detailed Information: 315519 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Toivanen, M, Hjort, J, Heino, J, Tukiainen, H, Aroviita, J, Alahuhta, J. Is catchment geodiversity a useful surrogate of aquatic plant species richness? J Biogeogr. 2019; 46: 1711– 1722, which has been published in final form at https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.13648. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.