University of Oulu

Priyanka Trivedi, Katja Karppinen, Linards Klavins, Jorens Kviesis, Petri Sundqvist, Nga Nguyen, Esa Heinonen, Maris Klavins, Laura Jaakola, Juha Väänänen, Janne Remes, Hely Häggman, Compositional and morphological analyses of wax in northern wild berry species, Food Chemistry, Volume 295, 2019, Pages 441-448, ISSN 0308-8146,

Compositional and morphological analyses of wax in northern wild berry species

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Author: Trivedi, Priyanka1; Karppinen, Katja1; Klavins, Linards2;
Organizations: 1Department of Ecology and Genetics, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
2Department of Environmental Science, University of Latvia, LV-1004 Riga, Latvia
3Centre of Microscopy and Nanotechnology, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
4NIBIO, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, NO-1431 Ås, Norway
5Climate Laboratory Holt, Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, NO-9037 Tromsø, Norway
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.5 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2019
Publish Date: 2020-05-21


Aerial surfaces of plants are covered by a waxy cuticle protecting plants from excessive water loss and UV light. In the present study, composition and morphology of cuticular waxes of northern wild berry species bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), lingonberry (V. vitis-idaea L.), bog bilberry (V. uliginosum L.) and crowberry (Empetrum nigrum L.) were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed differences in epicuticular wax morphology, and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis confirmed variation in chemical composition of cuticular waxes between the berry species. The dominant compounds in bilberry and lingonberry cuticular waxes were triterpenoids, while fatty acids and alkanes were the dominant ones in bog bilberry and crowberry, respectively. Wax extracted by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) from industrial press cakes of bilberry and lingonberry contained linoleic acid and γ-linolenic acid as the dominant compounds. Furthermore, in vitro sun protection factor (SPF) of berry waxes depicted good UV-B absorbing capacities.

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Series: Food chemistry
ISSN: 0308-8146
ISSN-E: 1873-7072
ISSN-L: 0308-8146
Pages: 441 - 448
DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.05.134
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 1181 Ecology, evolutionary biology
116 Chemical sciences
Funding: We acknowledge the research grant from InterregNord (Natural Wax of Arctic Berries as Our Treasure – WAX project (number 20201089 to University of Oulu and grant IR16-020 and grant RMF16-026 to Troms Fylkeskommune and NIBIO). The work of PT was financially supported by I4future doctoral program funded by EU Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under Marie Skoldowska Curie grant agreement number 713606. The work of JK was financially supported by the ERDF project No. “Genus Vaccinium berry processing using “green technologies and innovative, pharmacologically characterized biopharmaceutical products” and the work of LK was financially supported by the patron “Mikrotīkls” Ltd. administered by the Foundation of University of Latvia.
EU Grant Number: (713606) I4FUTURE - Novel Imaging and Characterisation Methods in Bio, Medical, and Environmental Research and Technology Innovations
Copyright information: © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license