University of Oulu

Niemelä, J., & Ruuskanen, E. (2019). References to Iconic Landscapes in the Debate Surrounding the Founding of Finland’s National Parks, circa 1880-1910. International Journal for History, Culture and Modernity, 7(0).

References to iconic landscapes in the debate surrounding the founding of Finland’s national parks, circa 1880-1910

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Author: Niemelä, Juho1; Ruuskanen, Esa1
Organizations: 1University of Oulu
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Uopen Journals, 2019
Publish Date: 2019-09-19


This article reviews the formation of the idea of national parks in Finland between the 1880s and 1910s. It argues that both the term and the concept of national park evolved in a long-lasting deliberative process between competing definitions. The main actors in this process were geographers, forestry scientists and NGOs devoted to popular education and the promotion of tourism. As a result of the debates, iconic landscapes and species were located in Finnish nature inside the wholly artificial boundaries of the national parks. Eventually, both the science and tourism poles of the decades-long debate were incorporated into the plans and visions for Finland’s national parks in the early twentieth century. The national park debate between the 1880s and 1910s focused mainly on landscapes, land formations and vegetation zones, and not so much on the wildlife or indeed the people who lived inside these areas.

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Series: International journal for history, culture and modernity
ISSN: 2214-9910
ISSN-E: 2213-0624
ISSN-L: 2214-9910
Volume: 7
Pages: 741 - 764
DOI: 10.18352/hcm.579
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 615 History and archaeology
Copyright information: Copyright: © The Author(s). Content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence.