University of Oulu

Antila, H., Arola, R., Hakko, H. et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry (2017) 26: 779.

Bullying involvement in relation to personality disorders : a prospective follow-up of 508 inpatient adolescents

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Author: Antila, Henna1; Arola, Riikka1; Hakko, Helinä2;
Organizations: 1Research Unit of Clinical Neurosciences, Department of Psychiatry, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Department of Psychiatry, Oulu University Hospital, P.O. Box 26, 90029 Oulu, Finland
3Department of Adolescent Psychiatry, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2017
Publish Date: 2019-09-20


We examined the association of bullying behavior in adolescence to personality disorder (PD) diagnosed in early adulthood. The study sample consisted of 508 adolescents (300 girls, 208 boys) who were admitted to psychiatric inpatient treatment between April 2001 and March 2006. Data were based on semi-structured K-SADSPL-interviews and hospital treatments extracted from the Care Register for Health Care (CRHC). At the end of 2013, details of psychiatric diagnoses recorded on hospital discharges and outpatient visits were extracted from the CRHC. This study showed that female victims of bullying have an almost fourfold likelihood of developing a PD later in life compared to adolescents with no involvement in bullying behavior. Most of the females had Borderline PD. Female adolescents diagnosed with anxiety disorder during adolescence had an over threefold risk of developing a PD during late adolescence or early adulthood. Conversely, we found no associations between bullying involvement among men in adolescence and subsequent PDs. Bullying victimization may influence the development of PDs among females. Adolescent services should pay particular attention to female victims of bullying and those displaying symptoms of anxiety disorders.

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Series: European child & adolescent psychiatry
ISSN: 1018-8827
ISSN-E: 1435-165X
ISSN-L: 1018-8827
Volume: 26
Issue: 7
Pages: 779 - 789
DOI: 10.1007/s00787-017-0946-6
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3124 Neurology and psychiatry
3123 Gynaecology and paediatrics
Funding: This study received support from the Finnish Medical Foundation.
Copyright information: © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017. This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. The final authenticated version is available online at: