University of Oulu

De Anda Villa, M., Gaudin, J., Amans, D., Boudjada, F., Bozek, J., Evaristo Grisenti, R., Lamour, E., Laurens, G., Macé, S., Nicolas, C., Papagiannouli, I., Patanen, M., Prigent, C., Robert, E., Steydli, S., Trassinelli, M., Vernhet, D., Lévy, A. (2019) Assessing the Surface Oxidation State of Free-Standing Gold Nanoparticles Produced by Laser Ablation. Langmuir, 35(36), 11859-11871.

Assessing the surface oxidation state of free-standing gold nanoparticles produced by laser ablation

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Author: De Anda Villa, Manuel1; Gaudin, Jérôme2; Amans, David3;
Organizations: 1Institut des Nanosciences de Paris, Sorbonne Université-Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS UMR7588, 75005 Paris, France
2CNRS, CEA, CELIA (Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications), Univeristy of Bordeaux, UMR5107, F-33405 Talence, France
3Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, UMR5306 CNRS, Institut Lumière Matière, Univeristy of Lyon, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France
4L’Orme des Merisiers, Synchrotron SOLEIL, Saint-Aubin, BP 48, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France
5GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt, Germany
6Nano and Molecular Systems Research Unit, Faculty of Science, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: American Chemical Society, 2019
Publish Date: 2020-08-27


The surface chemistry of gold nanoparticles produced by the pulsed laser ablation in liquids method is investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The presence of surface oxide expected on these systems is investigated using synchrotron radiation in conditions close to their original state in solvent but free from substrate or solvent effects which could affect the interpretation of spectroscopic observations. For that purpose we performed the experiment on a controlled free-standing nanoparticle beam produced by combination of an atomizer and an aerodynamic lens system. These results are compared with those obtained by the standard situation of deposited nanoparticles on silicon substrate. An accurate analysis based on Bayesian statistics concludes that the existence of oxide in the free-standing conditions cannot be solely confirmed by the recorded core-level 4f spectra. If present, our data indicate an upper limit of 2.15 ± 0.68% of oxide. However, a higher credence to the hypothesis of its existence is brought by the structureless valence profile of the free-standing beam. Moreover, the cross-comparison with the deposited nanoparticles case clearly evidences an important misleading substrate effect. Experiment with free-standing nanoparticles is then demonstrated to be the right way to further investigate oxidation states on Au nanoparticles.

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Series: Langmuir
ISSN: 0743-7463
ISSN-E: 1520-5827
ISSN-L: 0743-7463
Volume: 35
Issue: 36
Pages: 11859 - 11871
DOI: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.9b02159
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 114 Physical sciences
116 Chemical sciences
221 Nanotechnology
Funding: The acknowledgements also include financial support from the Academy of Finland, from the Mexican Council for Science and Technology (Grant 611509), and from Agence Nationale de la Recherche: CASTORS project ANR-13-JS04-0002 and PLAS@PAR project (Cluster of Excellence in Plasmas Physics in Paris, which received financial state aid of the programme “Investissements d’avenir” under the reference ANR-11-IDEX-0004-02).
Copyright information: This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in Langmuir, copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final edited and published work see