University of Oulu

Kanerva, T., Honkanen, M., Kolli, T., Heikkinen, O., Kallinen, K., Saarinen, T., … Vippola, M. (2019). Microstructural Characteristics of Vehicle-Aged Heavy-Duty Diesel Oxidation Catalyst and Natural Gas Three-Way Catalyst. Catalysts, 9(2), 137.

Microstructural characteristics of vehicle-aged heavy-duty diesel oxidation catalyst and natural gas three-way catalyst

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Author: Kanerva, Tomi1; Honkanen, Mari1; Kolli, Tanja2;
Organizations: 1Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Tampere University, P.O. Box 589, FI-33014 Tampere, Finland
2Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
3Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, P.O. Box 110, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland
4Dinex Finland Oy, Vihtavuorentie 162, FI-41330 Vihtavuori, Finland
5SSAB Europe Oy, Rautaruukintie 155, FI-92101 Raahe, Finland
6Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 11.6 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2019
Publish Date: 2019-09-23


Techniques to control vehicle engine emissions have been under increasing need for development during the last few years in the more and more strictly regulated society. In this study, vehicle-aged heavy-duty catalysts from diesel and natural gas engines were analyzed using a cross-sectional electron microscopy method with both a scanning electron microscope and a transmission electron microscope. Also, additional supporting characterization methods including X-ray diffractometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and catalytic performance analyses were used to reveal the ageing effects. Structural and elemental investigations were performed on these samples, and the effect of real-life ageing of the catalyst was studied in comparison with fresh catalyst samples. In the real-life use of two different catalysts, the poison penetration varied greatly depending on the engine and fuel at hand: the diesel oxidation catalyst appeared to suffer more thorough changes than the natural gas catalyst, which was affected only in the inlet part of the catalyst. The most common poison, sulphur, in the diesel oxidation catalyst was connected to cerium-rich areas. On the other hand, the severities of the ageing effects were more pronounced in the natural gas catalyst, with heavy structural changes in the washcoat and high concentrations of poisons, mainly zinc, phosphorus and silicon, on the surface of the inlet part.

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Series: Catalysts
ISSN: 2073-4344
ISSN-E: 2073-4344
ISSN-L: 2073-4344
Volume: 9
Issue: 2
Article number: 137
DOI: 10.3390/catal9020137
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 215 Chemical engineering
218 Environmental engineering
216 Materials engineering
Funding: Authors acknowledge financial support from the 100th Anniversary Foundation of the Federation of Finnish Technology Industries and the Academy of Finland is thanked for funding (Decision numbers 138798 and 139187).
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 139187
Detailed Information: 139187 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (