University of Oulu

J. Kekkonen, J. Nissinen and I. Nissinen, "Depth Analysis of Semi-Transparent Media by a Time-Correlated CMOS SPAD Line Sensor-Based Depth-Resolving Raman Spectrometer," in IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 19, no. 16, pp. 6711-6720, 15 Aug.15, 2019. doi: 10.1109/JSEN.2019.2913222

Depth analysis of semi-transparent media by a time-correlated CMOS SPAD line sensor-based depth-resolving Raman spectrometer

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Author: Kekkonen, Jere1; Nissinen, Jan1; Nissinen, Ilkka1
Organizations: 1Circuits and Systems Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.8 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2019
Publish Date: 2019-09-24


Raman spectroscopy has proved to have potential in deep surface analytical applications. We present here, to the best of our knowledge, the first time depth analysis of semi-transparent media by a depth-resolving Raman spectrometer based on an adjustable time-correlated CMOS SPAD (single-photon avalanche diode) line sensor that can measure the depth of target samples embedded in a centimeter-scale semi-transparent medium simultaneously with a normal Raman depth profiling operation and suppress the fluorescence background by means of adjustable picosecond time gating. The variability of the depth derivation was measured to be ± 0.43 cm at depths ranging from 2 to 9 cm. In addition, the advantages of the adjustable picosecond time gating in terms of depth derivation and fluorescence background suppression performance were shown by comparing gate widths ranging from 100 ps to 13 ns. We believe that the technology concerned could pave the way for a new kind of compact, practical depth-resolving Raman spectrometer for deep subsurface analytical applications.

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Series: IEEE sensors journal
ISSN: 1530-437X
ISSN-E: 1558-1748
ISSN-L: 1530-437X
Volume: 19
Issue: 16
Pages: 6711 - 6720
DOI: 10.1109/JSEN.2019.2913222
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Copyright information: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. For more information, see