University of Oulu

Vanhala, V., Junkkari, A., Korhonen, V. E., Kurki, M. I., Hiltunen, M., Rauramaa, T., … Leinonen, V. (2018). Prevalence of Schizophrenia in Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus. Neurosurgery, 84(4), 883–889.

Prevalence of schizophrenia in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

Saved in:
Author: Vanhala, Vasco1; Junkkari, Antti1; Korhonen, Ville E.1;
Organizations: 1Neurosurgery of NeuroCenter, Kuopio University Hospital (KUH) and University of Eastern Finland (UEF), Kuopio, Finland
2Analytical and Translational Genetics Unit, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, and Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute for Harvard and MIT, Boston, Massachusetts
3Institute of Biomedicine, UEF, Kuopio, Finland
4Department of Pathology, KUH and UEF, Kuopio, Finland
5Neurology of NeuroCenter, KUH and UEF, Kuopio, Finland
6Medical Research Center, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
7Unit of Clinical Neuroscience, Neurology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
8Department Health, Mental Health Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
9Turku University Hospital and University of Turku, Turku, Finland
10Department of Social Psychiatry, School of Public Health, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland
11Department of Psychology and Logopedics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
12Psychiatry and Clinical Research Centre, UEF, Kuopio Finland
13Department of Psychiatry, KUH and UEF, Kuopio, Finland
14Department of Neurology, UEF, Kuopio, Finland
15Unit of Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.6 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Oxford University Press, 2019
Publish Date: 2019-09-24


Background: Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a progressive and potentially treatable neurodegenerative disease affecting elderly people, characterized by gait impairment and ventricular enlargement in brain imaging. Similar findings are seen in some patients with schizophrenia (SCZ).

Objective: To determine the prevalence of SCZ among patients suffering from probable or possible iNPH and the specific effects of comorbid SCZ on the outcome of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting.

Methods: All medical records of the 521 iNPH patients in the NPH registry were retrospectively analyzed from 1991 until 2017. The prevalence of comorbidity of SCZ was determined and compared to that of general aged (≥65 yr) population in Finland.

Results: We identified a total of 16 (3.1%) iNPH patients suffering from comorbid SCZ. The prevalence of SCZ among the iNPH patients was significantly higher compared to the general population (3.1% vs 0.9%, P < .001). All iNPH patients with comorbid SCZ were CSF shunted and 12 (75%) had a clinically verified shunt response 3 to 12 mo after the procedure. The CSF shunt response rate did not differ between patients with and without comorbid SCZ.

Conclusion: SCZ seems to occur 3 times more frequently among iNPH patients compared to the general aged population in Finland. The outcome of the treatment was not affected by comorbid SCZ and therefore iNPH patients suffering from comorbid SCZ should not be left untreated. These results merit validation in other populations. In addition, further research towards the potential connection between these chronic conditions is warranted.

see all

Series: Neurosurgery
ISSN: 0148-396X
ISSN-E: 1524-4040
ISSN-L: 0148-396X
Volume: 84
Issue: 4
Pages: 883 - 889
DOI: 10.1093/neuros/nyy147
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3124 Neurology and psychiatry
Copyright information: © Congress of Neurological Surgeons 2018. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial-NoDerivs licence (, which permits non-commercial reproduction and distribution of the work, in any medium, provided the original work is not altered or transformed in any way, and that the work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact