University of Oulu

Shiokawa, K. et al. (2017) Ground-based instruments of the PWING project to investigate dynamics of the inner magnetosphere at subauroral latitudes as a part of the ERG-ground coordinated observation network. Earth, Planets and Spacevolume 69, Article number: 160.

Ground-based instruments of the PWING project to investigate dynamics of the inner magnetosphere at subauroral latitudes as a part of the ERG-ground coordinated observation network

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Author: Shiokawa, Kazuo1; Katoh, Yasuo1; Hamaguchi, Yoshiyuki1;
Organizations: 1Nagoya Univ, Inst Space Earth Environm Res, Nagoya, Aichi 4648601, Japan.
2Kanazawa Univ, Kakuma Machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 9201192, Japan.
3Kyoto Univ, Sakyo Ku, Oiwake Cho, Kyoto 6068502, Japan.
4Natl Inst Informat & Commun Technol, 4-2-1 Nukui Kita, Koganei, Tokyo 1848795, Japan.
5Natl Inst Polar Res, Midori Cho 10-3, Tachikawa, Tokyo 1908518, Japan.
6Japan Aerosp Explorat Agcy, Inst Space & Astronaut Sci, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan.
7Tohoku Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Aoba Ku, 6-3 Aramaki Aza Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 9808578, Japan.
8Osaka Electrocommun Univ, Neyagawa, Osaka, Japan.
9Aichi Univ, Toyohashi, Aichi, Japan.
10Univ Tokyo, Bunkyo Ku, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 1130033, Japan.
11Univ Electrocommun, Chofugaoka 1-5-1, Chofu, Tokyo 1828585, Japan.
12Athabasca Univ, 1 Univ Dr, Athabasca, AB T9S 3A3, Canada.
13Virginia Tech, Space VT, Bradley Dept Comp & Elect Engn, 1901 Innovat Dr,Suite 1033, Blacksburg, VA 24060 USA.
14Augsburg Univ, Dept Phys, 2211 Riverside Ave, Minneapolis, MN 55454 USA.
15Univ Oulu, Sodankyla Geophys Observ, Tahtelantie 62, Sodankyla 9960041, Finland.
16Astron Assoc Jyvaskyla Sirius, Jyvaskyla, Finland.
17Finnish Meteorol Inst, Erik Palmenin Aukio 1, Helsinki 00560, Finland.
18Russian Acad Sci, Siberian Branch, Yu G Shafer Inst Cosmophys Res & Aeron IKFIA, 31 Lenin Ave, Yakutsk 677980, Russia.
19Russian Acad Sci, Siberian Branch, ISTP, 126 a,Lermontov Str, Irkutsk 664033, Russia.
20Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Inst Geophys, Fairbanks, AK 99775 USA.
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2017
Publish Date: 2019-09-26


The plasmas (electrons and ions) in the inner magnetosphere have wide energy ranges from electron volts to mega-electron volts (MeV). These plasmas rotate around the Earth longitudinally due to the gradient and curvature of the geomagnetic field and by the co-rotation motion with timescales from several tens of hours to less than 10 min. They interact with plasma waves at frequencies of mHz to kHz mainly in the equatorial plane of the magnetosphere, obtain energies up to MeV, and are lost into the ionosphere. In order to provide the global distribution and quantitative evaluation of the dynamical variation of these plasmas and waves in the inner magnetosphere, the PWING project (study of dynamical variation of particles and waves in the inner magnetosphere using ground-based network observations, has been carried out since April 2016. This paper describes the stations and instrumentation of the PWING project. We operate all-sky airglow/aurora imagers, 64-Hz sampling induction magnetometers, 40-kHz sampling loop antennas, and 64-Hz sampling riometers at eight stations at subauroral latitudes (~ 60° geomagnetic latitude) in the northern hemisphere, as well as 100-Hz sampling EMCCD cameras at three stations. These stations are distributed longitudinally in Canada, Iceland, Finland, Russia, and Alaska to obtain the longitudinal distribution of plasmas and waves in the inner magnetosphere. This PWING longitudinal network has been developed as a part of the ERG (Arase)-ground coordinated observation network. The ERG (Arase) satellite was launched on December 20, 2016, and has been in full operation since March 2017. We will combine these ground network observations with the ERG (Arase) satellite and global modeling studies. These comprehensive datasets will contribute to the investigation of dynamical variation of particles and waves in the inner magnetosphere, which is one of the most important research topics in recent space physics, and the outcome of our research will improve safe and secure use of geospace around the Earth.

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Series: Earth, planets and space
ISSN: 1343-8832
ISSN-E: 1880-5981
ISSN-L: 1343-8832
Volume: 69
Article number: 160
DOI: 10.1186/s40623-017-0745-9
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Funding: The PWING project is funded as the Grant-in-Aid for Specially Promoted Research (16H06286) by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) and the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). This work is also supported by JSPS Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (20244080, 23403009, and 25247080, 15H05747, and 15H05815).
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2017. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.