University of Oulu

Asikainen, T. (2019). New homogeneous composite of energetic electron fluxes from POES: 2. Intercalibration of SEM‐1 and SEM‐2. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 124, 5761– 5782.

New homogeneous composite of energetic electron fluxes from POES : 2. Intercalibration of SEM‐1 and SEM‐2

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Author: Asikainen, T.1
Organizations: 1ReSoLVE Centre of Excellence, Space Climate Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 12.5 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: American Geophysical Union, 2019
Publish Date: 2019-09-26


One of the most popular long‐term data sets of energetic particles used in, for example, long‐term radiation belt studies and in atmospheric/climate studies is perhaps the NOAA/POES (Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites) data set, which extends nearly continuously from 1979 to present. The present study aims to construct a new homogeneous long‐term composite record of daily latitude distributions of energetic electrons based on the MEPED (Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detector) data. Part 1 of this study corrected the data for temporally varying background noise related to cosmic rays and for the drift in the orientation of satellite orbital planes. The present paper addresses the final and most severe problem for the data homogeneity, caused by the difference of telescope pointing directions in older SEM‐1 and newer SEM‐2 versions of the MEPED instrument. Because the telescope pitch angles and the electron pitch angle distribution change with latitude, the difference in SEM‐1 and SEM‐2 fluxes depends on latitude and varies from time to time. The systematic flux differences between SEM‐1 and SEM‐2 can range between a factor of 1.5 to more than an order of magnitude. Novel statistical methodology based on principal components and canonical correlation mapping is presented here to robustly transform the daily SEM‐1 electron latitude distributions into SEM‐2 level. The data from different POES satellites are then combined into a spatially and temporally homogeneous composite series, which is well suited, for example, for long‐term studies of radiation belts and precipitation related atmospheric ionization and its chemical and dynamical effects in the atmosphere/climate system.

This article is a companion to Asikainen and Ruopsa (2019),,

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Series: Journal of geophysical research. Space physics
ISSN: 2169-9380
ISSN-E: 2169-9402
ISSN-L: 2169-9380
Volume: 124
Issue: 7
Pages: 5761 - 5782
DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026699
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Funding: The author acknowledges the financial support by the Academy of Finland to the ReSoLVE Center of Excellence (project 307411) and to projects 257403 and 292712.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 307411
Detailed Information: 307411 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
257403 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
292712 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Dataset Reference: All the original POES/MEPED energetic particle data used here are archived in the NOAA/NGDC data server (
Copyright information: © 2019. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.