University of Oulu

Marjaana Mäkinen, Eliisa Löyttyniemi, Maarit Koskinen, Mari Vähä-Mäkilä, Heli Siljander, Mirja Nurmio, Juha Mykkänen, Suvi M Virtanen, Olli Simell, Heikki Hyöty, Jorma Ilonen, Mikael Knip, Riitta Veijola, Jorma Toppari, Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations at Birth in Children Screened for HLA-DQB1 Conferred Risk for Type 1 Diabetes, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 104, Issue 6, June 2019, Pages 2277–2285,

Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations at birth in children screened for HLA-DQB1 conferred risk for type 1 diabetes

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Author: Mäkinen, Marjaana1,2; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa3; Koskinen, Maarit1,2;
Organizations: 1MediCity, University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland
2Department of Pediatrics, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, 20520 Turku, Finland
3Department of Biostatistics, University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland
4Children ’ s Hospital, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, 00290 Helsinki, Finland
5Institute of Biomedicine, Research Centre for Integrative Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland
6Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland
7Public Health Promotion Unit, Department of Public Health Solutions, National Institute for Health and Welfare, 00271 Helsinki, Finland
8Faculty of Social Sciences/Health Sciences, University of Tampere, 33520 Tampere, Finland
9Tampere Center for Child Health Research, Tampere University and University Hospital and Science Center, Tampere University Hospital, 33520 Tampere, Finland
10Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere, 33520 Tampere, Finland
11Fimlab Laboratories, Pirkanmaa Hospital District, 33014 Tampere, Finland
12Research Programs Unit, Diabetes and Obesity, University of Helsinki, 00290 Helsinki, Finland
13Folkhälsan Research Center, 00290 Helsinki, Finland
14Department of Pediatrics, PEDEGO Research Unit, Medical Research Center Oulu, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
15Department of Children and Adolescents, Oulu University Hospital, 90029 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Endocrine society, 2019
Publish Date: 2019-09-30


Context: Vitamin D has several effects on the immune system that might be of relevance for the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D).

Objective: To evaluate whether umbilical cord serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25[OH]D) differ in children developing either islet autoimmunity (IA) or overt T1D during childhood and adolescence.

Design: Umbilical cord serum samples from 764 children born from 1994 to 2004 with HLA-DQB1 conferred risk for T1D participating in the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Study were analyzed for 25(OH)D using an enzyme immunoassay.

Setting: DIPP clinics in Turku, Oulu, and Tampere University Hospitals, Finland.

Participants: Two hundred fifty children who developed T1D diabetes at a median age of 6.7 years (interquartile range [IQR] 4.0 to 10.1 years) and 132 additional case children who developed IA, i.e., positivity for multiple islet autoantibodies. Cases were matched for date of birth, gender, and area of birth with 382 control children who remained autoantibody negative. The median duration of follow up was 9.8 years (IQR 5.7 to 13.1 years).

Main Outcome Measure: The median 25(OH)D concentrations.

Results: The median 25(OH)D concentration in cord serum was low [31.1 nmol/L (IQR 24.0 to 41.8); 88% <50 nmol/L], but not statistically different between children who developed T1D or IA and their control groups (P = 0.70). The levels were associated mainly with geographical location, year and month of birth, age of the mother, and maternal intake of vitamin D during pregnancy.

Conclusions: The 25(OH)D concentrations at birth are not associated with the development of T1D during childhood.

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Series: Journal of clinical endocrinology & metabolism
ISSN: 0021-972X
ISSN-E: 1945-7197
ISSN-L: 0021-972X
Volume: 104
Issue: 6
Pages: 2277 - 2285
DOI: 10.1210/jc.2018-02094
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3121 General medicine, internal medicine and other clinical medicine
3123 Gynaecology and paediatrics
Funding: This study was supported by grants from the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (grants 4-1998-274, 4-1999-731, 4-2001-435), Academy of Finland (Centre of Excellence in Molecular Systems Immunology and Physiology Research 2012-2017, Decision No. 250114, 284597 and 276475, and Personalised Medicine to Predict and Prevent Type 1 Diabetes, Decision No. 292623), Funds for University Hospitals in Finland, Sigrid Juselius Foundation, Signe and Ane Gyllenberg Foundation, the Pediatric Research Foundation in Finland, the Alma and K.A. Snellman Foundation, the Finnish Diabetes Research Foundation, European Foundation for the Study of Diabetes, and the University of Turku Doctoral Programme of Clinical Investigation.
Copyright information: © 2019 Endocrine Society. This article has been published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY;