University of Oulu

Choi, RT, Beard, KH, Leffler, AJ, Kelsey, KC, Schmutz, JA, Welker, JM. Phenological mismatch between season advancement and migration timing alters Arctic plant traits. J Ecol. 2019; 107: 2503– 2518. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.13191

Phenological mismatch between season advancement and migration timing alters Arctic plant traits

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Author: Choi, Ryan T.1; Beard, Karen H.1; Leffler, A. Joshua2;
Organizations: 1Department of Wildland Resources, Utah State University and the Ecology Center, Logan, Utah
2Department of Natural Resource Management, South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota
3Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alaska‐Anchorage, Anchorage, Alaska
4U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, Anchorage, Alaska
5UArctic, Ecology and Genetics Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: embargoed
Persistent link: http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi-fe2019093030530
Language: English
Published: John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Publish Date: 2020-04-18
Description:

Abstract

Climate change is creating phenological mismatches between herbivores and their plant resources throughout the Arctic. While advancing growing seasons and changing arrival times of migratory herbivores can have consequences for herbivores and forage quality, developing mismatches could also influence other traits of plants, such as above‐ and below‐ground biomass and the type of reproduction, that are often not investigated.

In coastal western Alaska, we conducted a 3‐year factorial experiment that simulated scenarios of phenological mismatch by manipulating the start of the growing season (3 weeks early and ambient) and grazing times (3 weeks early, typical, 3 weeks late, or no‐grazing) of Pacific black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans), to examine how the timing of these events influence a primary goose forage species, Carex subspathacea.

After 3 years, an advanced growing season compared to a typical growing season increased stem heights, standing dead biomass, and the number of inflorescences. Early season grazing compared to typical season grazing reduced above‐ and below‐ground biomass, stem height, and the number of tillers; while late season grazing increased the number of inflorescences and standing dead biomass. Therefore, an advanced growing season and late grazing had similar directional effects on most plant traits, but a 3‐week delay in grazing had an impact on traits 3–5 times greater than a similarly timed shift in the advancement of spring. In addition, changes in response to treatments for some variables, such as the number of inflorescences, were not measurable until the second year of the experiment, while other variables, such as root productivity and number of tillers, changed the direction of their responses to treatments over time.

Synthesis. Factors affecting the timing of migration have a larger influence than earlier springs on an important forage species in the breeding and rearing habitats of Pacific black brant. The phenological mismatch prediction for this site of earlier springs and later goose arrival will likely increase above‐ and below‐ground biomass and sexual reproduction of the often‐clonally reproducing C. subspathacea. Finally, the implications of mismatch may be difficult to predict because some variables required successive years of mismatch to respond.

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Series: Journal of ecology
ISSN: 0022-0477
ISSN-E: 1365-2745
ISSN-L: 0022-0477
Volume: 107
Issue: 5
Pages: 2503 - 2518
DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.13191
OADOI: https://oadoi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.13191
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 1181 Ecology, evolutionary biology
Subjects:
Funding: Work was funded by NSF awards 1304523 and 1304879, and by the Utah Agricultural Experiment Station, Utah State University, and approved as journal paper #9111. R. Choi received support from NSF award 1633756.
Dataset Reference: Data are published online at the NSF Arctic Data Center: https://doi.org/10.18739/A22274 (Beard & Choi, 2017).
  https://doi.org/10.18739/A22274
Copyright information: © 2019 The Authors. Journal of Ecology © 2019 British Ecological Society. This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Choi, RT, Beard, KH, Leffler, AJ, Kelsey, KC, Schmutz, JA, Welker, JM. Phenological mismatch between season advancement and migration timing alters Arctic plant traits. J Ecol. 2019; 107: 2503– 2518, which has been published in final form at https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.13191. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving