University of Oulu

Haas, T. , Ringel, A. , Visuri, V. , Eickhoff, M. and Pfeifer, H. (2019), Direct Measurement of the Direction, Size, and Velocity of Droplets Generated by Top‐Blowing. steel research int., 90: 1900177. doi:10.1002/srin.201900177

Direct measurement of the direction, size, and velocity of droplets generated by top‐blowing

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Author: Haas, Tim1; Ringel, Aron1; Visuri, Ville-Valtteri2;
Organizations: 1Department for Industrial Furnaces and Heat Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, Kopernikusstraße 10, D-52074 Aachen, Germany
2Process Metallurgy Research Unit, University of Oulu, PO Box 4300, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: embargoed
Persistent link: http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi-fe2019093030639
Language: English
Published: John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Publish Date: 2020-06-04
Description:

Abstract

Problems associated with top‐blowing are present in most steel plants. While it promotes high reaction rates, it can cause loss of yield, working hazards, and increased maintenance cost by spitting, skulling, or lid sticking. Although the basic physics of the splashing phenomenon have already been established, earlier studies have not addressed the velocities of splashing droplets. Furthermore, existing information on the size and impingement angle of the droplets is based on indirect measurements. Herein, a direct measurement method for splashing droplets is developed that obtains the number of droplets, splashing angle, droplet velocity, and diameter at the same time. It is found that existing correlations overestimate the droplet diameter, because they are biased by the indirect method and overfit the results obtained with raw iron. Grid measurements indicate that all droplet properties strongly depend upon the sampling position. Finally, the splashing angle is found to become steeper while the lance height decreases. However, the effect is less correlated with the cavity mode than assumed in the literature. Further measurements are proposed, using the methodology developed in this work, to derive more comprehensive droplet property correlations. By that, lance designs and blowing practices can be optimized.

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Series: Steel research international
ISSN: 1611-3683
ISSN-E: 1869-344X
ISSN-L: 1611-3683
Volume: 90
Issue: 9
Article number: 1900177
DOI: 10.1002/srin.201900177
OADOI: https://oadoi.org/10.1002/srin.201900177
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 215 Chemical engineering
216 Materials engineering
Subjects:
Funding: V.‐V.V thanks SYMMET research project for the funding during a research visit at RWTH Aachen University.
Copyright information: © 2019 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Haas, T. , Ringel, A. , Visuri, V. , Eickhoff, M. and Pfeifer, H. (2019), Direct Measurement of the Direction, Size, and Velocity of Droplets Generated by Top‐Blowing. steel research int., 90: 1900177, which has been published in final form at https://doi.org/10.1002/srin.201900177. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.