University of Oulu

Jenni Kiventerä, Katri Piekkari, Visa Isteri, Katja Ohenoja, Pekka Tanskanen, Mirja Illikainen, Solidification/stabilization of gold mine tailings using calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement, Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 239, 2019, 118008, ISSN 0959-6526,

Solidification/stabilization of gold mine tailings using calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement

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Author: Kiventerä, Jenni1; Piekkari, Katri1; Isteri, Visa2;
Organizations: 1University of Oulu, Fiber and Particle Engineering, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, FIN-90014, Oulu, Finland
2University of Oulu, Process Metallurgy, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, FIN-90014, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2019
Publish Date: 2019-10-01


In this study, calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement (CSAB) was used to stabilize gold mine tailings, which are challenging materials to effectively immobilize due to high heavy metal and sulfate content. The hydration of CSAB cement yields ettringite and monosulfate with good capability for immobilizing sulfates and oxyanions in their crystal structure, in addition to physical encapsulation/solidification in a cementitious matrix. Different mix designs of CSAB cement and mine tailings were prepared, and the samples were cured at room temperature. Mechanical strength and heavy metal leaching were analyzed after 7 days, 28 days, and 90 days of curing, and the phase composition (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and microstructure (FESEM) were also studied. All harmful elements (cationic and oxyanion elements) were effectively immobilized during 7 days of curing, and the heavy metal immobilization remained constant after longer curing, according to an environmental leaching test. High mechanical strength results and good sulfate immobilization were obtained with mine tailing content up to 50 w-% of total binder material. With higher mine tailing content (75 w-% and 90 w-%), the mechanical strength and immobilization ability substantially decreased.

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Series: Journal of cleaner production
ISSN: 0959-6526
ISSN-E: 1879-1786
ISSN-L: 0959-6526
Volume: 239
Article number: 118008
DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.118008
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 1172 Environmental sciences
216 Materials engineering
218 Environmental engineering
Funding: The work was conducted in the CECIRE-project which was funded by Business Finland and the following companies: Boliden Harjavalta, Boliden Kokkola, Yara Suomi, Fortum Waste Solutions and Outokumpu Stainless. The authors would like to thank Jaakko Saukkoriipi for delivering the mine tailing sample for the experiments. The support of Renlund foundation and Tauno Tönning foundation are also appreciated. This work was also supported by the Academy of Finland (project GEOMINS, grant number 319676).
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 319676
Detailed Information: 319676 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (