University of Oulu

Mastali, M.; Alzaza, A.; Mohammad Shaad, K.; Kinnunen, P.; Abdollahnejad, Z.; Woof, B.; Illikainen, M. Using Carbonated BOF Slag Aggregates in Alkali-Activated Concretes. Materials 2019, 12, 1288.

Using carbonated BOF slag aggregates in alkali-activated concretes

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Author: Mastali, Mohammad1; Alzaza, Ahmad1; Shaad, Khaled Mohammad1;
Organizations: 1Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, Pentti Kaiteran katu 1, 90014 Oulu, Finland
2Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicester LE11 3TZ, Leicestershire, UK
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 7.8 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2019
Publish Date: 2019-10-09


This experimental study aimed to develop alkali-activated concretes containing carbonated basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slag aggregates. In the first stage, the impacts of replacing normal aggregates with carbonated BOF slag aggregates in different alkali-activated concretes were determined by assessing mechanical properties (compressive and flexural strengths), morphology, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), differential thermogravimetry (DTG) and the crystalline phases using X-ray diffraction analysis. Second, the developed plain alkali-activated concrete was reinforced by different fibre types and dosages to limit the negative impacts of the drying shrinkage and to improve strength. Therefore, the effects of using different fibre contents (1% and 1.5% in Vol.) and types (Polyvinyl alcohol [PVA], Polypropylene [PP], basalt, cellulose and indented short-length steel) on hardened state properties were evaluated. These evaluations were expressed in terms of the compressive and flexural strengths, ultrasonic pulse velocity, mass changes, drying shrinkage and efflorescence. Then, the impacts of aggressive conditions on the hardened properties of fibre-reinforced alkali-activated concretes were evaluated under carbonation, high temperature and freeze/thaw tests. The results showed that using carbonated BOF slag aggregates led to obtain higher strength than using normal aggregates in alkali activated concretes. Moreover, the maximum enhancement due to reinforcing the mixtures was recorded in alkali-activated concretes with steel fibres

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Series: Materials
ISSN: 1996-1944
ISSN-E: 1996-1944
ISSN-L: 1996-1944
Volume: 12
Issue: 8
Article number: 1288
DOI: 10.3390/ma12081288
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
215 Chemical engineering
Funding: This research was funded by ERAMIN2/Business, grant number 24302797”.
Copyright information: © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution(CC BY) license (