University of Oulu

Ramasetti, ., Visuri, ., Sulasalmi, ., Fabritius, ., Savolainen, ., Li, . (2019) Numerical Modelling of the Influence of Argon Flow Rate and Slag Layer Height on Open-Eye Formation in a 150 Ton Steelmaking Ladle. Metals, 9 (10), 1048. doi:10.3390/met9101048

Numerical modelling of the influence of argon flow rate and slag layer height on open-eye formation in a 150 ton steelmaking ladle

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Author: Ramasetti, Eshwar Kumar1; Visuri, Ville-Valtteri1; Sulasalmi, Petri1;
Organizations: 1Process Metallurgy Research Unit, University of Oulu, PO Box 4300, 90014 Oulu, Finland
2Outokumpu Stainless Oy, Terästie, 95490 Tornio, Finland
3School of Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Heping District, Shenyang 11004, China
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 5.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2019
Publish Date: 2019-10-10


A transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling approach was used to study the complex multi-phase flow in an argon-stirred industrial scale ladle with a nominal capacity of 150 tons. During the stirring process, when gas was injected through the porous plug from the bottom into the steel bath, it breaks up into bubbles and infringes the slag layer creating an open-eye. The volume of fluid model was used to investigate the open-eye formation process in the simulations. In the numerical simulations, the open-eye area changed from 0.7 to 2.24 m2 with the increment of argon flow rate from 200 to 500 NL/min for slag layer thickness of 40 cm. Furthermore, the influence of slag layer height on the open-eye area was investigated. An argon flow rate of 200 NL/min was able to break the slag layer for slag layer height of 40 cm, and the open-eye formation was not possible for the same flow rate when the slag layer height was elevated from 40 to 55 cm. The numerical simulation results were validated against industrial measurements carried out at Outokumpu Stainless located in Tornio, Finland. The numerical simulation results of dynamics and time-averages of the slag area showed a good agreement when compared to the industrial measurements. To conclude, it is necessary to define gas flow rate based on the slag layer height to have an open-eye suitable for alloying.

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Series: Metals
ISSN: 2075-4701
ISSN-E: 2075-4701
ISSN-L: 2075-4701
Volume: 9
Issue: 10
Article number: 1048
DOI: 10.3390/met9101048
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 215 Chemical engineering
216 Materials engineering
Funding: The author is grateful to the European Commission for providing funding under grant number 675715–MIMESIS–H2020–MSCA–ITN–2015, which is part of the Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions Innovative Training Networks European Industrial Doctorate Program.
EU Grant Number: (675715) MIMESIS - Mathematics and Materials Science for Steel Production and Manufacturing
Copyright information: © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (