University of Oulu

Kellokumpu S (2019) Golgi pH, Ion and Redox Homeostasis: How Much Do They Really Matter? Front. Cell Dev. Biol. 7:93. doi: 10.3389/fcell.2019.00093

Golgi pH, ion and redox homeostasis : how much do they really matter?

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Author: Kellokumpu, Sakari1
Organizations: 1Faculty of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.9 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Frontiers Media, 2019
Publish Date: 2019-10-21


Exocytic and endocytic compartments each have their own unique luminal ion and pH environment that is important for their normal functioning. A failure to maintain this environment — the loss of homeostasis — is not uncommon. In the worst case, all the main Golgi functions, including glycosylation, membrane trafficking and protein sorting, can be perturbed. Several factors contribute to Golgi homeostasis. These include not only ions such as H⁺, Ca²⁺, Mg²⁺, Mn²⁺, but also Golgi redox state and nitric oxide (NO) levels, both of which are dependent on the oxygen levels in the cells. Changes to any one of these factors have consequences on Golgi functions, the nature of which can be dissimilar or similar depending upon the defects themselves. For example, altered Golgi pH homeostasis gives rise to Cutis laxa disease, in which glycosylation and membrane trafficking are both affected, while altered Ca²⁺ homeostasis due to the mutated SCPA1 gene in Hailey–Hailey disease, perturbs various protein sorting, proteolytic cleavage and membrane trafficking events in the Golgi. This review gives an overview of the molecular machineries involved in the maintenance of Golgi ion, pH and redox homeostasis, followed by a discussion of the organelle dysfunction and disease that frequently result from their breakdown. Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are discussed only when they contribute directly to Golgi pH, ion or redox homeostasis. Current evidence emphasizes that, rather than being mere supporting factors, Golgi pH, ion and redox homeostasis are in fact key players that orchestrate and maintain all Golgi functions.

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Series: Frontiers in cell and developmental biology
ISSN: 2296-634X
ISSN-E: 2296-634X
ISSN-L: 2296-634X
Volume: 7
Article number: 93
DOI: 10.3389/fcell.2019.00093
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 1182 Biochemistry, cell and molecular biology
Funding: This work was financially supported by the Academy of Finland.
Copyright information: © 2019 Kellokumpu. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.