University of Oulu

Shchapova, E.; Nazarova, A.; Gurkov, A.; Borvinskaya, E.; Rzhechitskiy, Y.; Dmitriev, I.; Meglinski, I.; Timofeyev, M. Application of PEG-Covered Non-Biodegradable Polyelectrolyte Microcapsules in the Crustacean Circulatory System on the Example of the Amphipod Eulimnogammarus verrucosus. Polymers 2019, 11, 1246.

Application of PEG-covered non-biodegradable polyelectrolyte microcapsules in the crustacean circulatory system on the example of the amphipod Eulimnogammarus verrucosus

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Author: Shchapova, Ekaterina1,2; Nazarova, Anna1; Gurkov, Anton1,2;
Organizations: 1Institute of Biology, Irkutsk State University, 664025 Irkutsk, Russia
2Baikal Research Centre, 664003 Irkutsk, Russia
3Institute of Biology, Karelian Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences,185910 Petrozavodsk, Russia
4Optoelectronics and Measurement Techniques Laboratory, University of Oulu, 90570 Oulu, Finland
5Aston Institute of Materials Research, School of Engineering & Applied Science, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
6School of Life & Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.6 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2019
Publish Date: 2019-10-23


Layer-by-layer assembled microcapsules are promising carriers for the delivery of various pharmaceutical and sensing substances into specific organs of different animals, but their utility in vivo inside such an important group as crustaceans remains poorly explored. In the current study, we analyzed several significant aspects of the application of fluorescent microcapsules covered by polyethylene glycol (PEG) inside the crustacean circulatory system, using the example of the amphipod Eulimnogammarus verrucosus. In particular, we explored the distribution dynamics of visible microcapsules after injection into the main hemolymph vessel; analyzed the most significant features of E. verrucosus autofluorescence; monitored amphipod mortality and biochemical markers of stress response after microcapsule injection, as well as the healing of the injection wound; and finally, we studied the immune response to the microcapsules. The visibility of microcapsules decreased with time, however, the central hemolymph vessel was confirmed to be the most promising organ for detecting the spectral signal of implanted microencapsulated fluorescent probes. One million injected microcapsules (sufficient for detecting stable fluorescence during the first hours after injection) showed no toxicity for six weeks, but in vitro amphipod immune cells recognize the PEG-coated microcapsules as foreign bodies and try to isolate them by 12 h after contact.

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Series: Polymers
ISSN: 2073-4360
ISSN-E: 2073-4360
ISSN-L: 2073-4360
Volume: 11
Issue: 8
Article number: 1246
DOI: 10.3390/polym11081246
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 1182 Biochemistry, cell and molecular biology
216 Materials engineering
Funding: The study was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (#17-14-01063), the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (#19-54-04008) and Lake Baikal Foundation (#02-3/14). E.S. also acknowledges the partial support from the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of Russia and Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst (“Goszadanie”: #6.13468.2019/13.2).
Dataset Reference: Supplementary Materials:
Copyright information: © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (