University of Oulu

Hyvönen, H., Korhonen, L., Hannonen, J. et al. Recent trends in children’s elbow dislocation with or without a concomitant fracture. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 20, 294 (2019) doi:10.1186/s12891-019-2651-8

Recent trends in children’s elbow dislocation with or without a concomitant fracture

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Author: Hyvönen, Hanna1; Korhonen, Linda1; Hannonen, Juuli1;
Organizations: 1Department of Children and Adolescents Pediatric Surgery and Orthopedics Oulu University Hospital, Medical Research Centre Oulu and PEDEGO Research, Group Oulu University, PO Box 23, 90029 OYS, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.7 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2019
Publish Date: 2019-10-31


Background: The elbow is the joint that most usually dislocates in children. In contrast to the widely known recent increase in the incidence of upper-extremity fractures and their operative treatment in children, potential trends in elbow dislocation are not clear. In this study we aimed to clarify the recent epidemiology of childhood elbow dislocation, in particular the potential change in incidence and treatment.

Methods: A population-based study was performed to evaluate the annual incidence and the characteristics of injury, patients and treatment. All children < 16 years of age with an elbow dislocation in 1996–2014 in the Oulu University Hospital District, Finland, were included. Elbow dislocations with and without an associated fracture were included. The mean number of children in the population at risk was 85,600, according Statistics Finland.

Results: There were 104 patients with a mean age of 11.3 years (SD 2.6). The annual incidence was 6.4 (mean) per 100,000 children in 1996–2014 and no changing trend in incidence during the study period was found. Trampoline jumping was the most usual reason for the dislocations (N = 15, 14.4%). The majority (N = 73/104, 70.2%) were treated non-operatively by reduction and casting. There was no change in surgical treatment during the study time.

Conclusion: In contrast to increasing incidence of upper-extremity fractures in children, there has not been a change in the incidence of elbow dislocation in children. There was no change in surgical treatment in 1996–2014.

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Series: BMC musculoskeletal disorders
ISSN: 1471-2474
ISSN-E: 1471-2474
ISSN-L: 1471-2474
Volume: 20
Article number: 294
DOI: 10.1186/s12891-019-2651-8
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3126 Surgery, anesthesiology, intensive care, radiology
3123 Gynaecology and paediatrics
Copyright information: © The Authors 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.