Kärmeniemi, M., Lankila, T., Ikäheimo, T. et al. Residential relocation trajectories and neighborhood density, mixed land use and access networks as predictors of walking and bicycling in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 16, 88 (2019) doi:10.1186/s12966-019-0856-8
Residential relocation trajectories and neighborhood density, mixed land use and access networks as predictors of walking and bicycling in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966
|Author:||Kärmeniemi, Mikko1,2,3; Lankila, Tiina1,4; Ikäheimo, Tiina3,5;|
1Center for Life Course Health Research, University of Oulu, Faculty of Medicine, P.O. Box 5000, FI-90014, Oulu, Finland
2Department of Sport and Exercise Medicine, Oulu Deaconess Institute, Oulu, Finland
3Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
4Geography Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
5Center for Environmental and Respiratory Health Research, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
6Research Unit of Medical Imaging, Physics and Technology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
7Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
8Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
9Department of Psychiatry, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland
10Department of Psychiatry, Lapland Hospital District, Rovaniemi, Finland
|Online Access:||PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.7 MB)|
|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi-fe2019110436434
|Publish Date:|| 2019-11-04
Background: Given the high global prevalence of physical inactivity, there is a need to design cities that support active modes of transportation. High density diverse neighborhoods with good access networks have been associated with enhanced walking and cycling, but there is a lack of large-scale longitudinal studies utilizing a life course perspective to model residential relocation trajectories. The objectives of the present longitudinal study were to model and visualize residential relocation trajectories between 31 and 46 years of age based on neighborhood density, mixed land use and access networks (DMA), and to assess neighborhood DMA as a predictor of self-reported regular walking and cycling and objectively measured physical activity.
Methods: Based on data from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (N = 5947), we used self-reported regular walking and cycling and objectively measured physical activity as outcome variables and objectively assessed neighborhood DMA as the main explanatory variable. We conducted sequence analysis to model residential relocation trajectories, and generalized linear mixed models and Fisher’s exact test were used to explore longitudinal associations between neighborhood DMA and physical activity.
Results: Over 80% of the participants lived in a neighborhood with the same level of neighborhood DMA during the follow-up. Relocation occurred more often from higher to lower DMA neighborhoods than reverse. Increased neighborhood DMA was associated with increased regular walking (OR 1.03; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.05; p = 0.023) and cycling (OR 1.17; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.23; p < 0.001). Residential relocation trajectory from lower to highest neighborhood DMA increased the odds of starting regular walking (OR 3.15; 95% CI: 1.50, 7.14; p = 0.001) and cycling (OR 2.63; 95% CI: 1.23, 5.79; p = 0.009) as compared to higher to lower neighborhood DMA trajectory.
Conclusions: The results strongly support the hypothesis that increasing urban DMA can enhance regular walking and cycling at population level and so improve public health. The findings have implications for zoning and transportation policies, favoring the creation of dense and diverse neighborhoods with good access networks to support regular walking and cycling.
International journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity
|Type of Publication:||
A1 Journal article – refereed
|Field of Science:||
3124 Neurology and psychiatry
3126 Surgery, anesthesiology, intensive care, radiology
3142 Public health care science, environmental and occupational health
315 Sport and fitness sciences
This study was funded by the Juho Vainio Foundation and the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture. The funders played no role in designing the study, or collecting, analyzing, and interpreting the data, or writing the manuscript.
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