University of Oulu

Elijah Adesanya, Harisankar Sreenivasan, Anu M. Kantola, Ville-Veikko Telkki, Katja Ohenoja, Paivo Kinnunen, Mirja Illikainen, Ladle slag cement – Characterization of hydration and conversion, Construction and Building Materials, Volume 193, 2018, Pages 128-134, ISSN 0950-0618,

Ladle slag cement : characterization of hydration and conversion

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Author: Adesanya, Elijah1; Sreenivasan, Harisankar1; Kantola, Anu M.2;
Organizations: 1Faculty of Technology, Fibre and Particle Engineering Unit, P.O. Box 4300, 90014 University of Oulu, Finland
2NMR Research Group, Faculty of Science, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, 90014 University of Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.3 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2018
Publish Date: 2020-10-29


Ladle slag, a by-product of steelmaking process, has shown potential to be used as a cementitious material in construction. However, the stability of the hydration products has not been investigated, and has been found to depend on available water. This paper presents the investigation of ladle slag hydration at different water-to-binder ratios. Hydrates of ladle slag converts from metastable to a stable reaction product over a period of time, thus affecting the mechanical and microstructural properties of the hydrated slag. These hydration products were analyzed using TGA, XRD, 27Al NMR, FTIR and SEM techniques. The water-to-binder ratio primarily contributes to the rate at which the conversion process occurs in the system which consequently has a direct effect on the strength derived over a period of time. Through analytical characterization of the microstructure, these hydrates and the conversion process were confirmed, revealing the initial hydrate product of ladle slag to be a metastable dicalcium aluminate octahydrate (C2AH8) which converts to a stable tricalcium aluminate hexahydrate (C3AH6) over a period of time.

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Series: Construction & building materials
ISSN: 0950-0618
ISSN-E: 1879-0526
ISSN-L: 0950-0618
Volume: 193
Pages: 128 - 134
DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.10.179
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 114 Physical sciences
116 Chemical sciences
1171 Geosciences
218 Environmental engineering
Funding: This work was funded by the European Regional Development Fund (A70189) under the auspices of the MINSI project by the following companies: SSAB Europe Oy, Ekokem Oy, Stora Enso Oy, Pohjolan Voima Oy and Oulun Energia.
Copyright information: © 2018. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license