University of Oulu

Raitamaa, L., Korhonen, V., Huotari, N., Raatikainen, V., Hautaniemi, T., Kananen, J., … Kiviniemi, V. (2019). Breath hold effect on cardiovascular brain pulsations – A multimodal magnetic resonance encephalography study. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, 39(12), 2471–2485.

Breath hold effect on cardiovascular brain pulsations : a multimodal magnetic resonance encephalography study

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Author: Raitamaa, Lauri1; Korhonen, Vesa1,2; Huotari, Niko1;
Organizations: 1Oulu Functional Neuro Imaging Group, Research Unit of Medical Imaging Physics and Technology (MIPT), University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Medical Research Center (MRC), Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
3Biomedical Sensors and Measurement Systems Group, Optoelectronics and Measurement Techniques Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: SAGE Publications, 2019
Publish Date: 2019-11-07


Ultra-fast functional magnetic resonance encephalography (MREG) enables separate assessment of cardiovascular, respiratory, and vasomotor waves from brain pulsations without temporal aliasing. We examined effects of breath hold- (BH) related changes on cardiovascular brain pulsations using MREG to study the physiological nature of cerebrovascular reactivity. We used alternating 32 s BH and 88 s resting normoventilation (NV) to change brain pulsations during MREG combined with simultaneously measured respiration, continuous non-invasive blood pressure, and cortical near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in healthy volunteers. Changes in classical resting-state network BOLD-like signal and cortical blood oxygenation were reproduced based on MREG and NIRS signals. Cardiovascular pulsation amplitudes of MREG signal from anterior cerebral artery, oxygenated hemoglobin concentration in frontal cortex, and blood pressure decreased after BH. MREG cardiovascular pulse amplitudes in cortical areas and sagittal sinus increased, while cerebrospinal fluid and white matter remained unchanged. Respiratory centers in the brainstem — hypothalamus — thalamus — amygdala network showed strongest increases in cardiovascular pulsation amplitude. The spatial propagation of averaged cardiovascular impulses altered as a function of successive BH runs. The spread of cardiovascular pulse cycles exhibited a decreasing spatial similarity over time. MREG portrayed spatiotemporally accurate respiratory network activity and cardiovascular pulsation dynamics related to BH challenges at an unpreceded high temporal resolution.

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Series: Journal of cerebral blood flow & metabolism
ISSN: 0271-678X
ISSN-E: 1559-7016
ISSN-L: 0271-678X
Volume: 39
Issue: 12
Pages: 1 - 45
DOI: 10.1177/0271678X18798441
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3112 Neurosciences
Copyright information: © 2018, © SAGE Publications. Reprinted by permission of SAGE Publications. The Definitive Version of Record can be found online at: