University of Oulu

Abdollahnejad, Z., Luukkonen, T., Mastali, M., Kinnunen, P., Illikainen, M. (2019) Development of One-Part Alkali-Activated Ceramic/Slag Binders Containing Recycled Ceramic Aggregates. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 31 (2), 04018386. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0002608

Development of one-part alkali-activated ceramic/slag binders containing recycled ceramic aggregates

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Author: Abdollahnejad, Z.1; Luukkonen, T.1; Mastali, M.1;
Organizations: 1Fibre and Particle Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Univ. of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, 90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.9 MB)
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Language: English
Published: American Society of Civil Engineers, 2019
Publish Date: 2019-11-07


Alkali-activated binders have received substantial attention due to their excellent potential in enabling the reuse and recycling of industrial solid wastes and by-products. One-part or just-add-water alkali-activated binders are an approach to reduce the negative aspects of using an alkali solution during the preparation of traditional two-part alkali-activated binders. The work aims to utilize the maximum content of ceramic wastes in alkali-activated blast-furnace slag/ceramic binders. The ground granulated blast-furnace slag was partially replaced [10%, 20%, and 30% in weight (wt.)%] by two types of ceramic wastes (porcelain and raw; i.e., fired and unfired). Moreover, the coarse particle size of porcelain ceramic waste was used as recycled aggregate. The specimens were cured under two different curing regimes: (1) sealing with plastic; and (2) using thermal curing conditions for 3 h in 60°C after demolding and then sealing until the test day. Mechanical testing and microstructural analysis were used to characterize the effects of different curing regimes and different ceramic sources. The results showed that replacing ground granulated blast-furnace slag with all types of ceramic wastes reduced the compressive strength; this reduction was mainly caused by reduction of the calcium content. This strength loss was also governed by the ceramic waste type, curing regime type, and curing duration. The microstructural analysis indicated that some cracks formed between the ceramic waste particles and the matrix. Moreover, the microscopic analysis indicated the use of preheating could eliminate cracking.

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Series: Journal of materials in civil engineering
ISSN: 0899-1561
ISSN-E: 1943-5533
ISSN-L: 0899-1561
Volume: 31
Issue: 2
Pages: 04018386-1 - 04018386-13
DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0002608
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 116 Chemical sciences
212 Civil and construction engineering
215 Chemical engineering
216 Materials engineering
Funding: This study was carried out by the project (GEOBIZ) grant ID: 1105/31/2016 and financially supported by the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation (Tekes).
Copyright information: © 2018 American Society of Civil Engineers. This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by American Society of Civil Engineers in Journal of materials in civil engineering, available online: