University of Oulu

Svetlana Filatova, Heli Koivumaa-Honkanen, Golam M Khandaker, Estelle Lowry, Tanja Nordström, Tuula Hurtig, Kristiina Moilanen, Jouko Miettunen, Early Motor Developmental Milestones and Schizotypy in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort Study 1966, Schizophrenia Bulletin, Volume 44, Issue 5, September 2018, Pages 1151–1158,

Early motor developmental milestones and schizotypy in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort Study 1966

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Author: Filatova, Svetlana1,2; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli3,4,5,6,7,8; Khandaker, Golam M.9,10;
Organizations: 1Center for Life Course Health Research, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
3Institute of Clinical Medicine (Psychiatry), University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
4Department of Psychiatry, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland
5South-Savonia Hospital District, Mikkeli, Finland
6North Karelia Central Hospital, Joensuu, Finland
7SOTE, Iisalmi, Finland
8Lapland Central Hospital, Rovaniemi, Finland
9Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
10Cambridgeshire and Peterborough NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge, UK
11Center for Life Course Health Research, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
12Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
13Center for Clinical Neurosciences, Department of Psychiatry, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
14PEDEGO Research Unit, Child Psychiatry, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
15Clinic of Child Psychiatry, University Hospital of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
16Department of Psychiatry, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Oxford University Press, 2018
Publish Date: 2019-11-11


Delayed motor developmental milestones have been reported to be associated with schizophrenia in previous studies, but no study has examined the relationship between early motor developmental milestones and schizotypy. We have examined this relationship in a prospective birth cohort. In the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966, data on 9 early motor developmental milestones were collected prospectively from visits to child welfare centers, and data on adult schizotypy were collected through a questionnaire (N = 4557–4674). Positive schizotypy was measured by the Perceptual Aberration Scale (PAS), negative schizotypy was measured by Physical Anhedonia Scale (PhAS) and Social Anhedonia Scale (SAS). Three related scales were included: Schizoidia Scale (SCHD), Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS), and Bipolar II Scale (BIP2). We examined the milestone–schizotypy associations before and after excluding cases of schizophrenia from this population-based sample. Hierarchical regression analyses adjusted for covariates and separately for both genders were performed. In men, each extra month of delay in achievement of touching thumb with index finger, sitting unsupported, standing up, walking with support, or walking unsupported was associated with an increase in PAS, PhAS, or SCHD scores, or decrease in BIP2 score (P < 0.05). In women, each extra month of delay in achievement of turning from back to tummy was associated with an increase in PhAS and SAS scores (P < 0.05). Schizotypy is associated with delayed motor developmental milestones in early-life, but there is some heterogeneity with regards to types of milestones and gender. These findings suggest delayed motor development confers risk across the continuum of schizophrenia syndrome.

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Series: Schizophrenia bulletin
ISSN: 0586-7614
ISSN-E: 1745-1707
ISSN-L: 0586-7614
Volume: 44
Issue: 5
Pages: 1151 - 1158
DOI: 10.1093/schbul/sbx165
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3124 Neurology and psychiatry
Funding: This work was supported by funding from the University of Oulu (65354 and 24500325); Oulu University Hospital (2/97, 8/97); the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs (23/251/97, 160/97, 190/97); the National Institute for Health and Welfare Helsinki (54121); the Regional Institute of Occupational Health, Oulu, Finland (50621, 54231); the People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007–2013 under REA agreement (316795); the Wellcome Trust (201486/Z/16/Z); the Academy of Medical Sciences, UK (80354); and the Academy of Finland (303696 and 268336).
EU Grant Number: (316795) MARATONE - Mental Health Training through Research Network in Europe
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 303696
Detailed Information: 303696 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
268336 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.