University of Oulu

Liisa Kuula, Anu-Katriina Pesonen, Ilona Merikanto, Michael Gradisar, Jari Lahti, Kati Heinonen, Eero Kajantie, Katri Räikkönen, Development of Late Circadian Preference: Sleep Timing From Childhood to Late Adolescence, The Journal of Pediatrics, Volume 194, 2018, Pages 182-189.e1, ISSN 0022-3476,

Development of late circadian preference : sleep timing from childhood to late adolescence

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Author: Kuula, Liisa1; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina1; Merikanto, Ilona1;
Organizations: 1Department of Psychology and Logopedics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
2School of Psychology, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia
3Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
4Chronic Disease Prevention Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
5Children's Hospital, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
6PEDEGO Research Unit, MRC Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.3 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2018
Publish Date: 2019-11-11


Objectives: To assess differences relating to circadian preference in objectively measured sleep patterns from childhood to adolescence over a 9-year period. We hypothesized there is developmental continuity in sleep timing and duration according to circadian preference.

Study design: Young participants (N = 111, 65% girls) from a community-based birth cohort underwent sleep actigraphy at mean ages 8.1 (SD = 0.3), 12.3 (SD = 0.5), and 16.9 (SD = 0.1) years. A short version of Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire was administered in late adolescence. At each follow-up, sleep midpoint, duration, wake after sleep onset, sleep efficiency, and weekend catch-up sleep were compared between those reporting morning, intermediate, and evening preferences in late adolescence.

Results: Mixed model analyses indicated that sleep timing was significantly earlier among morning types compared with evening type at all ages (P values < 0.04). The mean differences in sleep midpoint between morning and evening types increased from a mean of 19 minutes (age 8), 36 minutes (age 12), to 89 minutes (age 17). The largest change occurred from age 12 to 17 years. Sleep duration, wake after sleep onset, sleep efficiency, and catch-up sleep did not differ according to circadian preference.

Conclusions: This study found significant continuity in sleep timing from childhood to adolescence over 9 years, indicating that late circadian preference reported in late adolescence begins to manifest in middle childhood. Further studies are needed to establish whether sleep timing has its origins at an even earlier age.

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Series: Journal of pediatrics
ISSN: 0022-3476
ISSN-E: 1097-6833
ISSN-L: 0022-3476
Volume: 194
Pages: 182 - 189
DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2017.10.068
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3111 Biomedicine
3123 Gynaecology and paediatrics
Funding: Supported by The Academy of Finland (1287174), the Juho Vainio Foundation, the Signe and Ane Gyllenberg Foundation, the PsyCo Doctoral Programme of Psychology, the Sigrid Jusélius Foundation, the Foundation for Pediatric Research, the Novo Nordisk Foundation, the Emil Aaltonen Foundation, and the Australian Research Council. M.G. received funding from Re-Timer Pty Ltd, is a paid consultant for the Australian Psychological Society and Little Brown Book Company, and owns stock in ResMed. The other authors declare no conflicts of interest.
Copyright information: Crown Copyright © 2017 Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license