University of Oulu

Pesonen, J., Kaakinen, J., Välimäki, I., Illikainen, M., & Kuokkanen, T. (2017). Comparison of standard methods for evaluating the metal concentrations in bio ash. International Journal of Environment and Waste Management, 20(3), 203.

Comparison of standard methods for evaluating the metal concentrations in bio ash

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Author: Pesonen, Janne1; Kaakinen, Juhani2; Välimäki, Ilkka3;
Organizations: 1Faculty of Technology, Research Unit of Sustainable Chemistry, P.O.Box 3000, 90014, Oulu, Finland
2North Ostrobothnia Centre for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment, P.O.Box 86, FI-90101, Oulu, Finland
3Ahma Engineers Ltd, Kiilakiventie 1, FI-90250, Oulu, Finland
4Faculty of Technology, Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Group, P.O. Box 4300, 90014 University of Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Inderscience, 2017
Publish Date: 2019-11-21


The current growth strategy and environmental legislation of the European Union both aim to increase the amount of renewable energy and to improve the use of waste streams. These policies mean there will be an increasing need to utilise bio ash. Currently, Finland and Denmark are the only European countries with specific national legislation concerning bio ash use. Sweden has recommendations concerning the use of bio ash fertilisers. Besides having different limit values for harmful elements and nutrients in ash fertilisers, all these countries have different digestion methods that are allowed for element content determinations. This study compared the results of the five digestion methods (aqua regia, nitric acid, nitric/hydrochloric acids, nitric/hydrochloric/hydrogen fluoride acids, and lithium tetraborate fusion) established by Nordic authorities. Two Finnish peat-wood fly ash samples were studied. Our results indicate that the choice of digestion methods produces a significant difference in the obtained heavy metal or nutrient concentration of bio ash, especially regarding the potassium concentration.

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Series: International journal of environment and waste management
ISSN: 1478-9876
ISSN-E: 1478-9868
ISSN-L: 1478-9876
Volume: 20
Issue: 3
Article number: 203
DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2017.087149
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 218 Environmental engineering
Copyright information: © 2017 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd. Published in this repository with the kind permission of the publisher.