University of Oulu

Halonen, S., Kangas, T., Haataja, M. et al. Emiss. Control Sci. Technol. (2017) 3: 161.

Urea-water-solution properties : density, viscosity, and surface tension in an under-saturated solution

Saved in:
Author: Halonen, Sauli1; Kangas, Teija2; Haataja, Mauri1;
Organizations: 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
2Research Unit of Sustainable Chemistry, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
3Kokkola University Consortium Chydenius, Unit of Applied Chemistry, University of Jyvaskyla, Talonpojankatu 2B, FI-67100 Kokkola, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.5 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2017
Publish Date: 2019-11-25


A temperature-concentration dependent surface fit for the relative viscosity of a urea-water-solution (UWS) is calculated based on experimental and literature data. For the surface fit, a 2D Lorentzian function was used, where the x-axis was assigned to a urea mass fraction and the y-axis to the solution temperature and the rest of the Lorentzian function parameters were optimized based on the experimental and literature data. The surface model describes the relative viscosity of under-saturated urea-water-solution. The experimental data for the kinematic viscosity was measured with an Ubbelohde capillary viscometer whose temperature was controlled with a thermostat. The temperature and concentration range was from 293.15 to 353.15 K in 10-K increments and for urea mass fractions from 0.325 to 0.7. The kinematic viscosity values from the experiment were converted to relative viscosity by calculating the density of the UWS. An exponential fit was calculated to describe the specific gravity of the UWS based on literature data. Additionally, the surface tension of the UWS was measured at room temperature (293.15 K) in a mass fraction range from 0.302 to 0.596. As a result, simple models describing UWS properties were obtained and these models can be implemented into computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations.

see all

Series: Emission control science and technology
ISSN: 2199-3629
ISSN-E: 2199-3637
ISSN-L: 2199-3629
Volume: 3
Issue: 2
Pages: 161 - 170
DOI: 10.1007/s40825-016-0051-1
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
Funding: This work was made possible by the Proventia Emission Control Oy located in Oulunsalo, Finland.
Copyright information: © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016. This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in Emiss. Control Sci. Technol. The final authenticated version is available online at: