University of Oulu

Kärnä, A., Järvinen, M., Sulasalmi, P., Visuri, V.-V., Ollila, S. and Fabritius, T. (2018), An Improved Model for the Heat-Up Stage of the CAS-OB Process: Development and Validation. steel research int., 89: 1800141.

An improved model for the heat‐up stage of the CAS‐OB process : development and validation

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Author: Kärnä, Aki1; Järvinen, Mika2; Sulasalmi, Petri1;
Organizations: 1Process Metallurgy Research Unit, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, 90014 Oulu, Finland
2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aalto University, P.O. Box 14440, 00076 Aalto, Finland
3SSAB Europe Oy, Rautaruukintie 155, P.O. Box 93, 92101 Raahe, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.5 MB)
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Language: English
Published: John Wiley & Sons, 2018
Publish Date: 2019-11-26


Details of chemical heating in the CAS‐OB process are not known exactly, making a computational model valuable in process development and control. A phenomena‐based numerical model of the CAS‐OB heating stage is presented. Chemical equilibrium at reaction surfaces is assumed to be limited by mass transfer. Making use of a law of mass action based kinetic approach, reactions, and mass transfer rates are solved simultaneously. Computational fluid dynamics is used to derive heat and mass transfer coefficients, which are then used in our model, consisting of only a few computational nodes. The model includes steel melt, slag, and gas phases, bell, and ladle structures, and three reaction fronts. Radiation, conduction, and convection heat transfer are solved in the system. The model outputs temperatures and chemical composition of the system, and the results are validated with industrial data from two measurement campaigns.

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Series: Steel research international
ISSN: 1611-3683
ISSN-E: 1869-344X
ISSN-L: 1611-3683
Volume: 89
Issue: 10
Article number: 1800141
DOI: 10.1002/srin.201800141
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 215 Chemical engineering
Funding: For funding this work, we would like to acknowledge Business Finland (DIMECC SIMP project), Academy of Finland (projects 258319 and 26495), The Jenny and Antti Wihuri Foudation, Tauno Tönning Foudation, and Finnish Culture Foundation. We would like to thank SSAB for cooperation.
Copyright information: © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Kärnä, A. , Järvinen, M. , Sulasalmi, P. , Visuri, V. , Ollila, S. and Fabritius, T. (2018), An Improved Model for the Heat‐Up Stage of the CAS‐OB Process: Development and Validation. steel research int., 89: 1800141, which has been published in final form at This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.