University of Oulu

Patrick N. Lemougna, Juho Yliniemi, Arnold Ismailov, Erkki Levanen, Pekka Tanskanen, Paivo Kinnunen, Juha Roning, Mirja Illikainen, Spodumene tailings for porcelain and structural materials: Effect of temperature (1050–1200 °C) on the sintering and properties, Minerals Engineering, Volume 141, 2019, 105843, ISSN 0892-6875,

Spodumene tailings for porcelain and structural materials : effect of temperature (1050–1200 °C) on the sintering and properties

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Author: Lemougna, Patrick N.1; Yliniemi, Juho1; Ismailov, Arnold2;
Organizations: 1Faculty of Technology, Fibre and Particle Engineering Unit, University of Oulu, PO Box 4300, 90014, Finland
2Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Tampere University, P.O. Box 599, FI-33101 Tampere, Finland
3Process Metallurgy Research Unit, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, 90014 Oulu, Finland
4InfoTech Oulu, Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, Biomimetics and Intelligent Systems Group (BISG), University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.9 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2019
Publish Date: 2021-06-15


The use of industrial by-products as substitute to conventional natural resources in ceramic production is of interest from an environment preservation and solid wastes management. This paper deals with the recycling of tailings from spodumene concentration during lithium production (Quartz Feldspar Sand; QFS), for the production of porcelain and structural materials. The QFS obtained from spodumene processing consisted mainly of quartz, albite, microcline with traces of muscovite. Mixtures of QFS and standard porcelain ingredients were sintered at 1050–1200 °C at 50 °C intervals and their properties were compared with a conventional porcelain composition prepared under the same conditions. Phase composition was assessed by XRD analysis using Rietveld refinement. Tests such as water absorption, apparent density, sintering shrinkage, compressive and flexural strength were used for physical comparison. The results showed that higher densification was achieved at 1200 °C, with a drastic reduction of water absorption below 1%. A compressive strength of 40 MPa was obtained at 1050 °C in the composition made of 50 wt% QFS and 50 wt% kaolin, increasing to 85 MPa at 1100 °C. The strength increase was attributed to better glassy phase formation and mullite growth. The QFS was found to contain no hazardous elements and showed promising sintering results, indicating its high suitability to substitute conventional resources in the production of ceramic materials.

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Series: Minerals engineering
ISSN: 0892-6875
ISSN-E: 1872-9444
ISSN-L: 0892-6875
Volume: 141
Article number: 105843
DOI: 10.1016/j.mineng.2019.105843
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
Funding: This work was performed under the framework of the “GEOBOT” project, supported by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), Pohjois-Pohjanmaa Council of Oulu Region and Vipuvoimaa EU:lta 2014-2020 and companies Boliden Harjavalta Oy, Keliber Oy and Saint-Gobain Finland Oy.
Copyright information: © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.