University of Oulu

Katrijn Gijbels, Hoang Nguyen, Paivo Kinnunen, Pieter Samyn, Wouter Schroeyers, Yiannis Pontikes, Sonja Schreurs, Mirja Illikainen, Radiological and leaching assessment of an ettringite-based mortar from ladle slag and phosphogypsum, Cement and Concrete Research, Volume 128, 2020, 105954, ISSN 0008-8846,

Radiological and leaching assessment of an ettringite-based mortar from ladle slag and phosphogypsum

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Author: Gijbels, Katrijn1; Nguyen, Hoang2; Kinnunen, Päivö2;
Organizations: 1Hasselt University, CMK, Nuclear Technological Centre, Agoralaan, Gebouw H, 3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium
2Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, Pentti Kaiteran katu 1, 90014 Oulu, Finland
3Hasselt University, IMO, Applied and Analytical Chemistry, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium
4KU Leuven, Department of Materials Engineering, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2020
Publish Date: 2021-12-03


In this investigation, ettringite-based mortars were synthesized from ladle slag (LS) and phosphogypsum (PG), promoting the concept of a circular economy. However, the reuse of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), such as PG, requires radiological investigation. Also, the immobilization degree for contaminants contained in PG should be evaluated. The former was investigated using gamma spectroscopy and radon exhalation/emanation tests, while the latter was assessed using an up-flow percolation column test according to the CEN/TS 16637‐3. The produced mortars comply with current legislation on naturally occurring radionuclides (NOR) in building materials, proving that they can be safely used for building purposes. The radon emanation decreased upon increasing the Polish PG content, which was mainly determined by the microporosity. The specific surface areas were 20‐30 times lower than conventional cement, and the immobilization degree for contaminants was generally high (>90%). This investigation demonstrates high potential for PG reuse in ettringite-based mortars.

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Series: Cement and concrete research
ISSN: 0008-8846
ISSN-E: 1873-3948
ISSN-L: 0008-8846
Volume: 128
Article number: 105954
DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2019.105954
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 212 Civil and construction engineering
216 Materials engineering
218 Environmental engineering
Funding: This work was supported by the Fund for Scientific Research Flanders (FWO). The authors would like to thank Jenny Put for the IC measurements and to acknowledge the networking support of the COST Action TU1301, At the University of Oulu, this work was done as part of the FLOW project (project number 8904/31/2017) funded by Business Finland in the ERA-MIN 2 Innovation program (EU Horizon 2020 program). SSAB Europe Oy and Yara Oy are acknowledged for providing ladle slag and phosphogypsum.
Copyright information: © 2019. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license