University of Oulu

P. Keränen and J. Kostamovaara, "$256\times8$ SPAD Array With 256 Column TDCs for a Line Profiling Laser Radar," in IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, vol. 66, no. 11, pp. 4122-4133, Nov. 2019. doi: 10.1109/TCSI.2019.2923263

256 x 8 SPAD array with 256 column TDCs for a line profiling laser radar

Saved in:
Author: Keränen, Pekka1; Kostamovaara, Juha1
Organizations: 1Circuits and Systems Research Unit, Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.2 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2019
Publish Date: 2019-12-09


A receiver circuit for pulsed time-of-flight line profiling laser radar has been designed in 0.35μm CMOS technology. The receiver consists of a line detector array with 256×8 SPADs with a pitch of 41.6μm. The diameter of the SPAD’s active area is 25.6μm, which gives a fill factor of 0.35. Each column has 8 SPADs and a TDC with a range and resolution of 640 ns and 20 ps, respectively. The TDCs are based on the Nutt interpolation method where cyclic converters are utilized as fine converters. A compact demonstrator system has been built with a horizontal FOV of about 37°, which gives a column-wise angular resolution of about 0.15°. This solid-state system uses a pulsed laser diode with cylindrical transmitter optics to illuminate the full FOV of the receiver with a single laser pulse. The system can measure distances up to 30 m @ 28 fps with an accuracy and precision of few millimeters in typical indoor lighting conditions. Outdoors, in direct sunlight conditions, the measurement range is decreased to 5 m. Outdoor range, however, can be increased if frame rate is lowered and more laser shots are accumulated per frame.

see all

Series: IEEE transactions on circuits and systems. I, Regular papers
ISSN: 1549-8328
ISSN-E: 1558-0806
ISSN-L: 1549-8328
Volume: 66
Issue: 11
Pages: 4122 - 4133
DOI: 10.1109/TCSI.2019.2923263
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This work was supported in part by the Academy of Finland, Centre of Excellence in Laser Scanning Research, under Contract 307362 and Contract 317144, and in part by the Business Finland under Contract 2773/31/2015.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 307362
Detailed Information: 307362 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
317144 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © The Authors 2019. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see