University of Oulu

M. Cheng, M. R. K. Aziz and T. Matsumoto, "A DOA-Based Factor Graph Technique for 3D Multi-Target Geolocation," in IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 94630-94641, 2019. doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2928851

A DOA-based factor graph technique for 3D multi-target geolocation

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Author: Cheng, Meng1; Aziz, Muhammad Reza Kahar2; Matsumoto, Tad1,3
Organizations: 1School of Information Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST), Nomi, Ishikawa, 923-1211, Japan
2School of Electrical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Sumatera (ITERA), Lampung Selatan, 35365, Indonesia
3Center of Wireless Communications, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.8 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2019
Publish Date: 2019-12-09


The primary goal of this paper is to propose a new factor graph (FG) technique for the direction-of-arrival (DOA)-based three-dimensional (3D) multi-target geolocation. The proposed FG detector uses only the mean and the variance of the DOA measurement including both the azimuth and the elevation, assuming that they are suffering from errors following a Gaussian probability density function (PDF). Therefore, both the up-link (UL) transmission load and the detection complexity can be significantly reduced. The Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) of the proposed DOA-based 3D geolocation system is mathematically derived. According to the root mean square error (RMSE) results obtained by simulations, the proposed FG algorithm is found to outperform the conventional linear least square (LS) approach, which achieves a very close performance to the derived CRLB. Moreover, we propose a sensor separation algorithm to solve the target-DOAs matching problem such that the DOAs, measured by each sensor, can be matched to their corresponding targets. With this technique, additional target identification is not needed, and the multi-target geolocation can be decomposed into multiple independent single-target detections.

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Series: IEEE access
ISSN: 2169-3536
ISSN-E: 2169-3536
ISSN-L: 2169-3536
Volume: 7
Pages: 94630 - 94641
DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2928851
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This work was supported in part by the Hitachi, Ltd., and in part by the Hitachi Kokusai Electric Inc.
Copyright information: © 2019 The Authors. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see