University of Oulu

Abdollahnejad, Z.; Mastali, M.; Falah, M.; Luukkonen, T.; Mazari, M.; Illikainen, M. Construction and Demolition Waste as Recycled Aggregates in Alkali-Activated Concretes. Materials 2019, 12, 4016.

Construction and demolition waste as recycled aggregates in alkali-activated concretes

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Author: Abdollahnejad, Zahra1; Mastali, Mohammad2; Falah, Mahroo2;
Organizations: 1Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, University of Connecticut, 261 Glenbrook Road Unit 3037, Storrs, CT 06269-3037, USA
2Fibre and Particle Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, 90014 Oulu
3Department of Civil Engineering, California State University, Los Angeles, CA 90032, USA
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.7 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2019
Publish Date: 2019-12-13


The growth of global construction has contributed to an inevitable increase in the amount of construction and demolition (C&D) waste, and the recycling of C&D waste as aggregates in concrete is receiving increased interest, resulting in less demand for normal aggregates and bringing a potential solution for the landfilling of wastes. Recently, several studies have focused on the use of C&D waste in alkali-activated concrete to move one step closer to sustainable concretes. This paper focuses on the main mechanisms of using C&D waste in the resulting physical, mechanical, and durability properties of alkali-activated concrete in fresh and hardened state properties. The main difficulties observed with recycled aggregates (RA) in concrete, such as high levels of water demand, porous structure, and low mechanical strength, occur in RA alkali-activated concretes. These are associated with the highly porous nature and defects of RA. However, the high calcium concentration of RA affects the binder gel products, accelerates the hardening rate of the concrete, and reduces the flowability of alkali-activated concretes. For this reason, several techniques have been investigated for modifying the water content and workability of the fresh matrix and for treating RA and RA/alkali-activated binder interactions to produce more sustainable alkali-activated concretes.

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Series: Materials
ISSN: 1996-1944
ISSN-E: 1996-1944
ISSN-L: 1996-1944
Volume: 12
Issue: 23
Article number: 4016
DOI: 10.3390/ma12234016
Type of Publication: A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Field of Science: 212 Civil and construction engineering
216 Materials engineering
Funding: This project received funding from the SYMMET, grant ID: 4236/31/2018, ERAMIN2/Business, grant ID: 24302797, ITERAMS project, grant ID: 730480, and GEOBIZ project, grant ID: 1105/31/2016.
EU Grant Number: (730480) ITERAMS - Integrated mineral technologies for more sustainable raw material supply
Copyright information: © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (