University of Oulu

Jarkko Saarinen (2017) Enclavic tourism spaces: territorialization and bordering in tourism destination development and planning, Tourism Geographies, 19:3, 425-437, DOI: 10.1080/14616688.2016.1258433

Enclavic tourism spaces : territorialization and bordering in tourism destination development and planning

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Author: Saarinen, Jarkko1,2
Organizations: 1Geography Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2School of Tourism and Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.5 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Informa, 2017
Publish Date: 2020-01-08


Enclave tourism is a growing field of research. In general, tourism enclaves are seen as products of global capitalism and a non-locally-driven neoliberal market economy. Enclaves also manifest certain kinds of tourism planning and development modes in destination societies. The enclaves are exclusively planned spaces that usually contain the vast majority of facilities and services needed for tourists who have limited possibilities or desire to leave the enclave. At the same time, the locals’ access to these spaces can be limited or otherwise controlled. Therefore, there are always power issues and processes of inequalities and uneven development involved, which calls for a further understanding of enclaves and their evolution and governance in tourism planning and development. This paper aims to discuss and synthesize the conceptual idea of enclaves in tourism and get an overview of some of the key theoretical perspectives on how enclavic spaces are produced, bordered, and governed in contemporary tourism planning and development. It is concluded that in critical situations the enclave tourism spaces with all-inclusive products can turn out to be all-exclusive for local communities in development. To understand the nature and development of enclave tourism and to guide their transformation in more sustainable directions, further research on policy and governance aspects of enclave tourism is needed.

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飞地旅游是一快速发展的研究领域。一般来说, 旅游飞地被看作是全球资本主义和非当地驱动的自由市场经济的产物。飞地也反应了目的地社会某些旅游发展与规划的模式:飞地是专门规划的旅游空间, 这些空间能包含了旅游者所需的绝大部分设施与服务, 以至于他们很少或者不必走出飞地就能得到这些服务设施。同时这些飞地限制或者控制本地人进入。因此, 旅游飞地总涉及权力、不平等、不均衡发展问题, 这需要在旅游规划与发展中深入理解飞地及其演化与管治问题。本文旨在讨论与归纳旅游飞地的概念性思想, 概览了当前旅游规划与发展中飞地空间的生产、临界与管治的主要理论问题。研究发现, 从批判的观点, 旅游产品无所不包的飞地旅游空间在发展中变成一个完全排斥当地社区的空间。为了理解飞地的特点以及发展, 引导其向更持续的方向转型, 未来需要研究飞地旅游的政策与管治问题。

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Series: Tourism geographies. An international journal of tourism space, place and environment
ISSN: 1461-6688
ISSN-E: 1470-1340
ISSN-L: 1461-6688
Volume: 19
Issue: 3
Pages: 425 - 437
DOI: 10.1080/14616688.2016.1258433
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 519 Social and economic geography
Funding: This study was supported by the Academy of Finland's RELATE Centre of Excellence (2014–2019).
Copyright information: © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Tourism geographies on 28 Nov 2016, available online: