University of Oulu

Jarkko Saarinen & Sandra Wall-Reinius (2019) Enclaves in tourism: producing and governing exclusive spaces for tourism, Tourism Geographies, 21:5, 739-748, DOI: 10.1080/14616688.2019.1668051

Enclaves in tourism : producing and governing exclusive spaces for tourism

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Author: Saarinen, Jarkko1,2; Wall-Reinius, Sandra3
Organizations: 1Geography Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu , Finland
2School of Tourism and Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa
3Geography Department and European Tourism Research Institute, Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.6 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Informa, 2019
Publish Date: 2021-05-01


Exclusively planned tourism destinations, such as all-inclusive resorts, gated resort communities, private cruise liner-owned islands and privatized beaches, have increased over the last few decades. Researchers have analyzed these kinds of tourism environments as enclaves, which are typically driven by external forces and actors, strongly supported by globalization and the current neoliberal market economy. Existing research shows that tourism enclaves are characterized by active border-making, power issues and material and/or symbolic separation from the surrounding socio-cultural realities, leading to weak linkages with host communities and the local economy. Tourism enclaves involve power inequalities, injustices and unsustainable practices that often have serious negative impacts on local socio-economic development. The articles of the special issue focus on tourism enclaves in different theoretical and geographical contexts and they contribute to our understanding of how these exclusive spaces are created and transformed and how they shape places and place identities. The individual research articles are contextualized and discussed with the key theoretical perspectives and empirical findings on tourism enclaves. Future research needs include analysis of linkages and flows of labor, goods, ideas and capital in different scales; policymaking, planning and regulations; environmental impacts; and locals’ land and resource access in the respect of bordering, privatization and land grabbing. By focusing on these topics, the tourism industry could be guided towards more responsible and sustainable development path.

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过去几十年来, 专门规划的旅游目的地不断增长, 比如全包式度假酒店、门控度假社区、私人邮艇岛屿和私有海滩。研究者称这几种类型的旅游地为旅游飞地, 是全球资本主义和新自由主义市场经济的产物, 其发展由非当地的外来行动者主导。现有研究表明旅游飞地最突出的特点表现为:旅游边界划定、权力分配与旅游区周边的社会文化环境相分离, 因此旅游区经济发展与周边社区经济发展之间的关联很小。而且, 飞地旅游涉含的不平等、不公正和不可持续的发展实践往往对东道主社区的社会经济发展产生严重的负面影响。本期特刊所辑文章重点关注:不同理论视角下不同地理空间的旅游飞地是如何生成并发展演变的, 以及它们又是如何形塑地方和地方认同的。这些特稿文章对旅游飞地进行了全景化的理论与实证研究。未来旅游飞地的研究尚需进一步关注以下主题的分析, 包括:不同层次的劳动力、商品、知识和资本的结合与流动;政策制定、规划和法规;环境影响;以及边界划定、土地私有化和土地掠夺境况下当地人获得土地和资源的途径。这些主题的研究将有助于引导旅游业走向更健康与可持续的发展道路。

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Series: Tourism geographies. An international journal of tourism space, place and environment
ISSN: 1461-6688
ISSN-E: 1470-1340
ISSN-L: 1461-6688
Volume: 21
Issue: 5
Pages: 739 - 748
DOI: 10.1080/14616688.2019.1668051
Type of Publication: B1 Journal article
Field of Science: 519 Social and economic geography
Copyright information: © 2019 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Tourism geographies on 01 Nov 2019, available online: