University of Oulu

Piiastiina Tikka, Miia Laitinen, Iikka Manninen & Harri Oinas-Kukkonen (2020) Gamifying a BCSS: rehearsal and reflection in reinforcing a health message response, Behaviour & Information Technology, 39:11, 1192-1203, DOI: 10.1080/0144929X.2019.1656778

Gamifying a BCSS : rehearsal and reflection in reinforcing a health message response

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Author: Tikka, Piiastiina1; Laitinen, Miia1; Manninen, Iikka1;
Organizations: 1Oulu Advanced Research on Service and Information Systems, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Informa, 2020
Publish Date: 2020-08-24


A gamified approach to promoting reflection and to engaging users in rehearsing decision-making in a dietary context was studied. The game was based on the principles of the Implicit Attitude Test, but was not a complete IAT in itself like the original test at by categorising food items under positive or negative associations the players gained points according to their categorisation speed but the score was merely indicative of attitudinal alignment with the target response. Showing the scores was a vehicle for reflection, and repeated playing constituted response rehearsal. Research questions: (1) does a gamified process of drawing attention to implicit attitudes evoke self-reflection and (2) does gamification of response rehearsal contribute positively to behaviour change? We expected the exposure to one’s own choices in the game to heighten the awareness of personal food choices. Experiment participants (N = 58) played the game over a five-day period. Constructs of Rehearsal, Reflection, Perceived Persuasiveness, and Perceived Health Behaviour Change were analysed using PLS-SEM. The findings point to rehearsal having a role in how reflection and perceived persuasiveness are connected. Reflection was involved in the self-reported behaviour change, and perceived persuasiveness can promote behaviour change. Open-ended questions showed awareness of choice having a behavioural effect.

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Series: Behaviour & information technology
ISSN: 0144-929X
ISSN-E: 1362-3001
ISSN-L: 0144-929X
Volume: 39
Issue: 11
Pages: 1192 - 1203
DOI: 10.1080/0144929X.2019.1656778
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 113 Computer and information sciences
Copyright information: © 2019 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Behaviour & Information Technology on 24.8.2019, available online: