University of Oulu

Aisha Banafa, Anna Liisa Suominen & Kirsi Sipilä (2020) Factors associated with signs of temporomandibular pain: an 11-year-follow-up study on Finnish adults, Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, 78:1, 57-63, DOI: 10.1080/00016357.2019.1650955

Factors associated with signs of temporomandibular pain : an 11-year-follow-up study on Finnish adults

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Author: Banafa, Aisha1; Suominen, Anna Liisa2,3,4; Sipilä, Kirsi2,5,6
Organizations: 1Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Institute of Dentistry, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
2Institute of Dentistry, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland
4Public Health Evaluation and Projection Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Helsinki, Finland
5Research Unit of Oral Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
6Oral and Maxillofacial Department, Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.9 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Informa, 2020
Publish Date: 2020-08-10


Background: Pain in the temporomandibular region is a main complaint causing disability and distress among temporomandibular disorders sufferers.

Objectives: The aim of the study was, over an 11-year follow-up on Finnish adult population, to investigate the prevalence of clinically assessed pain-related temporomandibular disorder (TMD) signs, i.e. temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and masticatory muscles (MM) pain on palpation, and their association with sociodemographic background and denture status.

Methods: The data were based on the nationally representative Finnish Health 2000 and Health 2011 Surveys (BRIF8901). The sample comprised 1210 adults who underwent clinical oral examinations including TMD signs assessment. Statistical evaluations included chi-square tests and logistic regressions.

Results: The prevalence of palpatory MM pain decreased from 9.5% at baseline to 4.6% in the follow-up. Cross-sectionally, presence of palpatory MM pain significantly associated with gender (p < .001, p = .002) and educational level (p < .001, p = .001) in both years, and with age (p = .006) and denture status (p = .022) at baseline. The prevalence of palpatory TMJ pain increased from 2.1% at baseline to 3.5% in the follow-up. Presence of palpatory TMJ pain significantly associated with gender in both years (p = .012, p = .032). Female gender, lower education and palpatory MM pain at baseline predicted palpatory MM pain in the follow-up.

Conclusion: Palpatory MM pain is relatively prevalent in adults, yet with a favourable prognosis. Women and people with low education are more susceptible groups. Previous experience of palpatory MM pain increases the risk of exhibiting it later in life.

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Series: Acta odontologica Scandinavica
ISSN: 0001-6357
ISSN-E: 1502-3850
ISSN-L: 0001-6357
Volume: 78
Issue: 1
Pages: 57 - 63
DOI: 10.1080/00016357.2019.1650955
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 313 Dentistry
Funding: This study is based on the Health 2000 and the Health 2011 Surveys, which were organized by the National Institute for Health and Welfare of Finland (THL) (, the former National Public Health Institute (KTL), and was partly supported by the Finnish Dental Society Apollonia and the Finnish Dental Association. A personal grant from the Finnish National Agency for Education (CIMO) to Aisha Banafa is acknowledged with gratitude.
Copyright information: © 2019 Acta Odontologica Scandinavica Society. This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Acta Odontologica Scandinavica on 10 Aug 2019, available online: