University of Oulu

Zbair, M., Ojala, S., Khallok, H. et al. Structured carbon foam derived from waste biomass: application to endocrine disruptor adsorption. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26, 32589–32599 (2019) doi:10.1007/s11356-019-06302-8

Structured carbon foam derived from waste biomass : application to endocrine disruptor adsorption

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Author: Zbair, Mohamed1,2; Ojala, Satu2; Khallok, Hamza3,4;
Organizations: 1Laboratory of Catalysis and Corrosion of Materials (LCCM), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Chouaïb Doukkali, BP 20, 24000, El Jadida, Morocco
2Faculty of Technology, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, University of Oulu, P. O. Box 4300, FI-90014, Oulu, Finland
3Team of Energy, Materials, and Environment, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University Chouaïb Doukkali, El Jadida, Morocco
4Laboratory of Coordination and Analytical Chemistry (LCCA), University Chouaïb Doukkali, El Jadida, Morocco
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2019
Publish Date: 2020-01-22


In this paper, a novel structured carbon foam has been prepared from argan nut shell (ANS) was developed and applied in bisphenol A (BPA) removal from water. The results showed that the prepared carbon foam remove 93% of BPA (60 mg/L). The BPA equilibrium data obeyed the Liu isotherm, displaying a maximum uptake capacity of 323.0 mg/g at 20 °C. The calculated free enthalpy change (∆H° = − 4.8 kJ/mol) indicated the existence of physical adsorption between BPA and carbon foam. Avrami kinetic model was able to explain the experimental results. From the regeneration tests, we conclude that the prepared carbon foam has a good potential to be used as an economic and efficient adsorbent for BPA removal from contaminated water. Based on these results and the fact that the developed structured carbon foam is very easy to separate from treated water, it can serve as an interesting material for real water treatment applications.

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Series: Environmental science and pollution research
ISSN: 0944-1344
ISSN-E: 1614-7499
ISSN-L: 0944-1344
Volume: 26
Issue: 31
Pages: 32589 - 32599
DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-06302-8
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 218 Environmental engineering
Funding: Open access funding provided by University of Oulu including Oulu University Hospital. The research leading to these results has received funding from the Erasmus+ Global programme between the University of Oulu, Finland, and the University of Chouaïb Doukkali in Morocco. A part of the research was carried out during the NO-WASTE project that received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP / 2007-2013) under the grant agreement no. [PIRSES-GA-2012-317714]. The FESEM analysis was carried out at the Center of Microscopy and Nanotechnology, University of Oulu, Finland.
EU Grant Number: (317714) NO-WASTE - Utilization of Industrial By-products and Waste in Environmental Protection
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.