Neolithic native copper finds from Finland and north-west Russia : a multi-method approach
1Archaeology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 1000, FI-90014 University of Oulu, Finland
|Online Access:||PDF Full Text (PDF, 5.8 MB)|
|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi-fe202001303917
Suomen arkeologinen seura,
|Publish Date:|| 2020-06-30
Archaeological native copper finds pertaining to Neolithic sites in Finland and Russian Karelia were analysed using a multi-method approach comprising portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (pXRF), electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA), metallography and the Vickers hardness test of microhardness. The results indicate how the processing of this exotic raw material took place in several ways. Native copper nuggets show evidence of annealing. Small copper sheets and strips have been produced by both cold hammering and hot working, while the making of some artefacts has involved smelting and casting. Some finds previously interpreted as possible Neolithic native copper objects are shown to be made of copper alloys or other metals and dated to later periods. The use of float copper of local or regional origin, or even the utilization of copper ore, instead of or alongside native copper are also briefly discussed.
|Pages:||87 - 107|
|Type of Publication:||
A1 Journal article – refereed
|Field of Science:||
615 History and archaeology
216 Materials engineering
The research for this paper was conducted mainly under two research projects: Copper, Material Culture and the Making of the World in Late Stone Age Finland and Russian Karelia funded by the University of Helsinki (2010–12; grant #490055) and The Use of Materials and the Neolithization of North-East Europe (c 6000–1000 BC) funded by the Academy of Finland and the University of Oulu (2013–17; project #269066).
|Academy of Finland Grant Number:||
269066 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
© 2019 Janne Ikäheimo and Fennoscandia archaeologica.