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Tanaka, Y.‐M., Nishiyama, T., Kadokura, A., Ozaki, M., Miyoshi, Y., Shiokawa, K., et al. (2019). Direct comparison between magnetospheric plasma waves and polar mesosphere winter echoes in both hemispheres. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 124, 9626–9639.

Direct comparison between magnetospheric plasma waves and polar mesosphere winter echoes in both hemispheres

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Author: Tanaka, Y.‐M.1,2,3; Nishiyama, T.1,3; Kadokura, A.1,2,3;
Organizations: 1National Institute of Polar Research, Tokyo, Japan
2Polar Environment Data Science Center, Joint Support‐Center for Data Science Research, Research Organization of Information and Systems, Tokyo, Japan
3Department of Polar Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, SOKENDAI, Japan
4Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan
5Department of Space Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu, Japan
6Department of Space Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute ofTechnology, Kitakyushu, Japan
7Ionosphere Research Unit, University of Oule, Oulu, Finland
8Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
9Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
10Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Tokyo, Japan
11National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Tokyo, Japan
12Department of Liberal Arts and Sciences, National Institute of Technology Kagoshima College, Kirishima, Japan
13Department of Artificial Intelligence, Faculty of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu, Japan
14National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo, Japan
15Graduate School of Informatics and Engineering, The University of Electro‐Communications, Tokyo, Japan
16Leibniz Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Kühlungsborn, Germany
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 15.7 MB)
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Language: English
Published: American Geophysical Union, 2019
Publish Date: 2020-06-26


We present the first and direct comparison between magnetospheric plasma waves and polar mesosphere winter echoes (PMWE) simultaneously observed by the conjugate observation with Arase satellite and high‐power atmospheric radars in both hemispheres, namely, the Program of the Antarctic Syowa Mesosphere, Stratosphere, and Troposphere/Incoherent Scatter Radar at Syowa Station (SYO; −69.00°S, 39.58°E), Antarctica, and the Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System at Andøya (AND; 69.30°N, 16.04°E), Norway. The PMWE were observed during 03–07 UT on 21 March 2017, just after the arrival of corotating interaction region in front of high‐speed solar wind stream. An isolated substorm occurred at 04 UT during this interval. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves and whistler mode chorus waves were simultaneously observed near the magnetic equator and showed similar temporal variations to that of the PMWE. These results indicate that chorus waves as well as EMIC waves are drivers of precipitation of energetic electrons, including relativistic electrons, which make PMWE detectable at 55‐ to 80‐km altitude. Cosmic noise absorption measured with a 38.2‐MHz imaging riometer and low‐altitude echoes at 55–70 km measured with an medium‐frequency radar at SYO also support the relativistic electron precipitation. We suggest a possible scenario in which the various phenomena observed in near‐Earth space, such as magnetospheric plasma waves (EMIC waves and chorus waves), pulsating auroras, cosmic noise absorption, and PMWE, can be explained by the interaction between the high‐speed solar wind containing corotating interaction regions and the magnetosphere.

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Series: Journal of geophysical research. Space physics
ISSN: 2169-9380
ISSN-E: 2169-9402
ISSN-L: 2169-9380
Volume: 124
Issue: 11
Pages: 9626 - 9639
DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026891
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Funding: This study was supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), Grants‐in‐Aid for Scientific Research (S) 15H05747, (A) 25247075, (A) 15H02628, and (B) 24340121 and Specially Promoted Research Grant 16H06286 and Scientific Research on Innovative Areas Grant 15H05815 of the Japan Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, and Technology (MEXT). This study was also supported by projects KP‐2, KP‐5, and KP‐301 of the National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR), and JST CREST Grant Number JPMJCR1663, Japan. PANSY is a multiinstitutional project with a core comprising the University of Tokyo and NIPR. The observations at Syowa Station were mainly supported by the Research Program of Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE) of the MEXT. The database construction for the ground‐based instruments was partly supported by the Interuniversity Upper atmosphere Global Observation NETwork (IUGONET) project ( The production of this paper was supported by a subsidy from the NIPR. Science data from the ERG (Arase satellite) were obtained from the ERG Science Center operated by ISAS/JAXA and ISEE/Nagoya University (‐ The MGF v02.01, PWE/OFA v02.01, PWE/HFA v01.01, and ERG Orbit L2 v02 were analyzed in this study. The MAARSY radar data are available at the IAP FTP site (ftp://ftp.iap‐‐in‐publications/TanakaJGR2019/). The PANSY radar observation data are available at the project website (http://pansy.eps.s.u‐ PANSY high‐resolution data used in this study are described in Sato et al. (2014) and available by request. Contact Kaoru Sato (kaoru@eps.s.u‐ The data obtained with the fluxgate magnetometer, induction magnetometer, imaging riometer, and MF radar at Syowa Station are available at the NIPR IUGONET website ( The solar wind data and AE index were downloaded from the NASA's Space Physics Data Facility ( The AE index was originally provided by the World Data Center for Geomagnetism, Kyoto University. These data can be downloaded and analyzed using the software SPEDAS ( with the plugins IUGONET and ERG.
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