University of Oulu

Kinnunen H, Häkkinen K, Schumann M, Karavirta L, Westerterp KR, Kyröläinen H (2019) Training-induced changes in daily energy expenditure: Methodological evaluation using wrist-worn accelerometer, heart rate monitor, and doubly labeled water technique. PLoS ONE 14(7): e0219563.

Training-induced changes in daily energy expenditure : methodological evaluation using wrist-worn accelerometer, heart rate monitor, and doubly labeled water technique

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Author: Kinnunen, Hannu1; Häkkinen, Keijo2; Schumann, Moritz3;
Organizations: 1Optoelectronics and Measurement Techniques Research Group, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Biology of Physical Activity, Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland
3Department of Molecular and Cellular Sports Medicine, German Sport University, Cologne, Germany
4Gerontology Research Center, Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland
5Polar Electro Oy, Kempele, Finland
6School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism (NUTRIM), Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Public Library of Science, 2019
Publish Date: 2020-02-11


Introduction: Wrist-mounted motion sensors can quantify the volume and intensity of physical activities, but little is known about their long-term validity. Our aim was to validate a wrist motion sensor in estimating daily energy expenditure, including any change induced by long-term participation in endurance and strength training. Supplemental heart rate monitoring during weekly exercise was also investigated.

Methods: A 13-day doubly labeled water (DLW) measurement of total energy expenditure (TEE) was performed twice in healthy male subjects: during two last weeks of a 12-week Control period (n = 15) and during two last weeks of a 12-week combined strength and aerobic Training period (n = 13). Resting energy expenditure was estimated using two equations: one with body weight and age, and another one with fat-free mass. TEE and activity induced energy expenditure (AEE) were determined from motion sensor alone, and from motions sensor combined with heart rate monitor, the latter being worn during exercise only.

Results: When body weight and age were used in the calculation of resting energy expenditure, the motion sensor data alone explained 78% and 62% of the variation in TEE assessed by DLW at the end of Control and Training periods, respectively, with a bias of +1.75 (p <.001) and +1.19 MJ/day (p = .002). When exercise heart rate data was added to the model, the combined wearable device approach explained 85% and 70% of the variation in TEE assessed by DLW with a bias of +1.89 and +1.75 MJ/day (p <.001 for both). While significant increases in TEE and AEE were detected by all methods as a result of participation in regular training, motion sensor approach underestimated the change measured by DLW: +1.13±0.66 by DLW, +0.59±0.69 (p = .004) by motion sensor, and +0.98±0.70 MJ/day by combination of motion sensor and heart rate. Use of fat-free mass in the estimation of resting energy expenditure removed the biases between the wearable device estimations and the golden standard reference method of TEE and demonstrated a training-induced increase in resting energy expenditure by +0.18±0.13 MJ/day (p <.001).

Conclusions: Wrist motion sensor combined with a heart rate monitor during exercise sessions, showed high agreement with the golden standard measurement of daily TEE and its change induced by participation in a long-term training protocol. The positive findings concerning the validity, especially the ability to follow-up the change associated with a lifestyle modification, can be considered significant because they partially determine the feasibility of wearable devices as quantifiers of health-related behavior.

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Series: PLoS one
ISSN: 1932-6203
ISSN-E: 1932-6203
ISSN-L: 1932-6203
Volume: 14
Issue: 7
Article number: e0219563
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0219563
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
113 Computer and information sciences
Funding: This study was supported by grants from the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture, and Polar Electro. At the time of data collection, authors HKi and LK were employed by Polar Electro. The funder provided support in the form of salaries for authors HKi and LK but did not have any additional role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. The specific roles of these authors are articulated in the ‘author contributions’ section. For remaining authors no conflicts of interest are declared.
Copyright information: © 2019 Kinnunen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.