University of Oulu

Mishev, A. L., Koldobskiy, S. A., Kovaltsov, G. A., Gil, A., & Usoskin, I. G. ( 2020). Updated neutron‐monitor yield function: Bridging between in situ and ground‐based cosmic ray measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 125, e2019JA027433.

Updated neutron‐monitor yield function : bridging between in situ and ground‐based cosmic ray measurements

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Author: Mishev, Alexander L.1,2; Koldobskiy, Sergey A.1,3; Kovaltsov, Gennady A.4;
Organizations: 1Space Physics and Astronomy Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
3National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI”, Moscow, Russia
4Ioffe Physical‐Technical Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia
5Space Research Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
6Institute of Mathematics, Siedlce University, Siedlce, Poland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.8 MB)
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Language: English
Published: American Geophysical Union, 2020
Publish Date: 2020-08-18


An updated yield function for a standard NM64 neutron monitor (NM) is computed and extended to different atmospheric depths from sea level to 500 g/cm² (∼5.7 km altitude) and is presented as lookup tables and a full parametrization. The yield function was validated using the cosmic ray spectra directly measured in space by the AMS‐02 experiment during the period May 2011 through May 2017 and confronted with count rates of all NM64‐type NMs being in operation during this period. Using this approach, stability of all the selected NMs was analyzed for the period 2011–2017. Most of NMs appear very stable and suitable for studies of long‐term solar modulation of cosmic rays. However, some NMs suffer from instabilities like trends, apparent jumps, or strong seasonal waves in the count rates.

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Series: Journal of geophysical research. Space physics
ISSN: 2169-9380
ISSN-E: 2169-9402
ISSN-L: 2169-9380
Volume: 125
Issue: 2
Article number: e2019JA027433
DOI: 10.1029/2019JA027433
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Funding: This work was partially supported by the Academy of Finland (ReSoLVE Centre of Excellence, Project 307411; HEAIM Projects 314982 and 316223; ESPERA Project 321882), by RFBR (Research Project 18‐32‐00062), RFBR and NRF (Research Project 19‐52‐60003), and MEPhI Academic Excellence Project (Contract 02.a03.21.0005), as well as by the International Space Science Institute support to International Team 441: High EneRgy sOlar partICle Events Analysis (HEROIC).
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 307411
Detailed Information: 307411 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
314982 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
316223 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
321882 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Dataset Reference: Supporting Information S1:
Copyright information: © 2020. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.