University of Oulu

Alavesa, P., Pakanen, M., Ojala, T. et al. Embedding virtual environments into the physical world: memorability and co-presence in the context of pervasive location-based games. Multimed Tools Appl 79, 3285–3309 (2020).

Embedding virtual environments into the physical world : memorability and co-presence in the context of pervasive location-based games

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Author: Alavesa, Paula1; Pakanen, Minna1,2; Ojala, Timo1;
Organizations: 1Center for Ubiquitous Computing, University of Oulu, P.O Box 4500, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
2Socio-Technical Design, Department of Engineering, Inge Lehmanns Gade 10, 8000 Aarhus C, Aarhus, Denmark
3Boogie Software Ltd., Kasarmintie 15, 90130 Oulu, Finland
4Adminotech Ltd., Hallituskatu 13, 90100 Oulu, Finland
5Elektrobit Automotive Finland Ltd., Elektroniikkatie 13, 90590 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 5.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2018
Publish Date: 2019-02-27


Realistic 3D virtual environments, such as existing city models, have the potential to be used in pervasive games as a passageway between physical and virtual. Smooth attention displacement and transitions between these two realities are largely unexplored in the context of pervasive gameplay. We conducted two field trials using a pervasive live action role playing game to study the effect moving between the virtual and the physical has on co-presence and memorability. Although differences in co-presence during gameplay were small, they highlight the subtleties in the social structuring of pervasive gameplay. Spatial similarity between the physical and virtual environments made the 3D virtual environments more memorable. We identify two important issues to consider in embedding virtual environments into pervasive games: structuring of social interactions and the spatial realism of the VEs.

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Series: Multimedia tools and applications
ISSN: 1380-7501
ISSN-E: 1573-7721
ISSN-L: 1380-7501
Volume: 79
Pages: 3285 - 3309
DOI: 10.1007/s11042-018-7077-z
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 518 Media and communications
113 Computer and information sciences
Funding: Open access funding provided by University of Oulu including Oulu University Hospital. This work has been supported by the Open Innovation Platforms spearhead project (A70202) and the Open City Model as Open Innovation Platform project (A71143) funded by the ERDF and the City of Oulu under the Six City Strategy program, and the COMBAT project (293389) funded by the Strategic Research Council at the Academy of Finland. The authors would also like to show appreaciation to the test participants.
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.