University of Oulu

Kortelainen, J., Väyrynen, E., Juuso, I. et al. Forehead electrodes sufficiently detect propofol-induced slow waves for the assessment of brain function after cardiac arrest. J Clin Monit Comput 34, 105–110 (2020).

Forehead electrodes sufficiently detect propofol-induced slow waves for the assessment of brain function after cardiac arrest

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Author: Kortelainen, Jukka1,2; Väyrynen, Eero2; Juuso, Ilkka2;
Organizations: 1Physiological Signal Analysis Team, Center for Machine Vision and Signal Analysis, MRC Oulu, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4500, 90014 Oulu, Finland
2Cerenion Oy, Elektroniikkatie 3, 90590 Oulu, Finland
3Research Group of Surgery, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Medical Faculty, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, 90014 Oulu, Finland
4Division of Intensive Care Medicine, MRC Oulu, University of Oulu and Oulu University Hospital, P.O. Box 21, 90029 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2020
Publish Date: 2020-02-27


In a recent study, we proposed a novel method to evaluate hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) by assessing propofol-induced changes in the 19-channel electroencephalogram (EEG). The study suggested that patients with HIE are unable to generate EEG slow waves during propofol anesthesia 48 h after cardiac arrest (CA). Since a low number of electrodes would make the method clinically more practical, we now investigated whether our results received with a full EEG cap could be reproduced using only forehead electrodes. Experimental data from comatose post-CA patients (N = 10) were used. EEG was recorded approximately 48 h after CA using 19-channel EEG cap during a controlled propofol exposure. The slow wave activity was calculated separately for all electrodes and four forehead electrodes (Fp1, Fp2, F7, and F8) by determining the low-frequency (< 1 Hz) power of the EEG. HIE was defined by following the patients’ recovery for six months. In patients without HIE (N = 6), propofol substantially increased (244 ± 91%, mean ± SD) the slow wave activity in forehead electrodes, whereas the patients with HIE (N = 4) were unable to produce such activity. The results received with forehead electrodes were similar to those of the full EEG cap. With the experimental pilot study data, the forehead electrodes were as capable as the full EEG cap in capturing the effect of HIE on propofol-induced slow wave activity. The finding offers potential in developing a clinically practical method for the early detection of HIE.

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Series: Journal of clinical monitoring and computing
ISSN: 1387-1307
ISSN-E: 1573-2614
ISSN-L: 1387-1307
Volume: 34
Issue: 1
Pages: 105 - 110
DOI: 10.1007/s10877-019-00282-3
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 217 Medical engineering
213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
3112 Neurosciences
Funding: This work was financially supported by grant 308935 from Academy of Finland, grant 40273/14 from Tekes—Finnish Funding Agency for Innovation, Medical Research Center Oulu (MRC Oulu), Orion Research Foundation, Instrumentarium science foundation, Emil Aaltonen foundation, Oulu University Scholarship Foundation, Finnish Foundation for Cardiovascular Research, and Finnish Science Foundation for Economics and Technology.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 308935
Detailed Information: 308935 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.