University of Oulu

Ramasetti, E.K., Visuri, V.‐V., Sulasalmi, P., Palovaara, T., Gupta, A.K. and Fabritius, T. (2019), Physical and CFD Modeling of the Effect of Top Layer Properties on the Formation of Open‐Eye in Gas‐Stirred Ladles With Single and Dual‐Plugs. steel research int., 90: 1900088. doi:10.1002/srin.201900088

Physical and CFD modeling of the effect of top layer properties on the formation of open‐eye in gas‐stirred ladles with single and dual‐plugs

Saved in:
Author: Ramasetti, Eshwar Kumar1; Visuri, Ville‐Valtteri1; Sulasalmi, Petri1;
Organizations: 1Process Metallurgy Research Unit, University of Oulu, PO Box 4300, FI‐90014 University of Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 4.9 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Publish Date: 2020-02-27


In secondary steelmaking, the optimal size and position of open‐eye is important for effective alloying practice. In the current work, the effect of the top layer thickness and density on the formation of open‐eye in a gas stirred ladle was investigated. A one‐fifth scale water model of 150‐ton ladle was established with single and dual plug configurations for the physical modeling measurements. Air, water and three different oils were used to simulate the argon, liquid steel and slag in the water model, respectively. A transient Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model based on Eulerian Volume of Fluid (VOF) approach was developed for numerical modeling of the fluid flow behavior. The physical modeling results show that the relative open‐eye area decreases from 46.7 to 5.6% when top layer thickness was increased from 0.75 to 7.5 cm using a gas flow rate of 7.5 NL min−1. The effect of the number of plugs on the open‐eye area for the same range of top layer thickness mentioned above was also studied. The relative open‐eye area generated due to the gas injection through the dual plugs decreased from 49.9 to 5.8%. To study the effect of top layer properties, rapeseed oil, castor oil and paraffin oil were employed for studying the effect of density and dynamic viscosity on the open‐eye formation. The results revealed that a larger open‐eye is formed when the density is increased. Furthermore, it was found out that the density of the upper phase dominates the open‐eye formation while dynamic viscosity has only minor effect. The results obtained from numerical simulations and physical modeling were found to be in good agreement.

see all

Series: Steel research international
ISSN: 1611-3683
ISSN-E: 1869-344X
ISSN-L: 1611-3683
Volume: 90
Issue: 8
Article number: 1900088
DOI: 10.1002/srin.201900088
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 215 Chemical engineering
216 Materials engineering
Funding: The authors are grateful for the financial support of the European Commission under grant number 675715‐MIMESIS − H2020‐MSCA‐ITN‐2015, which is part of the Marie Skłodowska‐Curie Actions Innovative Training Networks European Industrial Doctorate Programme. Furthermore, the Finnish Cultural Foundation is acknowledged for their financial support.
EU Grant Number: (675715) MIMESIS - Mathematics and Materials Science for Steel Production and Manufacturing
Copyright information: © 2019 The Authors. Published by WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.