University of Oulu

Basir, R.; Qaisar, S.; Ali, M.; Aldwairi, M.; Ashraf, M.I.; Mahmood, A.; Gidlund, M. Fog Computing Enabling Industrial Internet of Things: State-of-the-Art and Research Challenges. Sensors 2019, 19, 4807

Fog computing enabling industrial internet of things : state-of-the-art and research challenges

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Author: Basir, Rabeea1; Qaisar, Saad1; Ali, Mudassar1,2;
Organizations: 1School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
2Department of Telecommunication Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila 47050, Pakistan
3College of Technological Innovation, Zayed University, Abu Dhabi 144534, UAE
4Centre forWireless Communication, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
5Department of Information Systems and Technology, Mid Sweden University, 85170 Sundsvall, Sweden
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.3 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2019
Publish Date: 2020-02-28


Industry is going through a transformation phase, enabling automation and data exchange in manufacturing technologies and processes, and this transformation is called Industry 4.0. Industrial Internet-of-Things (IIoT) applications require real-time processing, near-by storage, ultra-low latency, reliability and high data rate, all of which can be satisfied by fog computing architecture. With smart devices expected to grow exponentially, the need for an optimized fog computing architecture and protocols is crucial. Therein, efficient, intelligent and decentralized solutions are required to ensure real-time connectivity, reliability and green communication. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of methods and techniques in fog computing. Our focus is on fog infrastructure and protocols in the context of IIoT applications. This article has two main research areas: In the first half, we discuss the history of industrial revolution, application areas of IIoT followed by key enabling technologies that act as building blocks for industrial transformation. In the second half, we focus on fog computing, providing solutions to critical challenges and as an enabler for IIoT application domains. Finally, open research challenges are discussed to enlighten fog computing aspects in different fields and technologies.

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Series: Sensors
ISSN: 1424-8220
ISSN-E: 1424-8220
ISSN-L: 1424-8220
Volume: 19
Issue: 21
Article number: 4807
DOI: 10.3390/s19214807
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Copyright information: © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (